There is no time limit on this test, though I have tried to design one that you should be able to complete within 3 hours, except for typing. You are not allowed to use your notes, or any books, any electronic sources, nor are you allowed to discuss the test with anyone until all exams are turned in at 9:30 am on Monday April 10, 2000. EXAMS ARE DUE AT CLASS TIME ON MONDAY APRIL 10. You may use a calculator and/or ruler. The answers to the questions must be typed on a separate sheet of paper unless the question specifically says to write the answer in the space provided. If you do not write your answers on the appropriate pages, I may not find them unless you have indicated where the answers are.
-3 pts if you do not follow this direction.
Please do not write or type your name on any page other than this cover page. Staple all your pages (INCLUDING THE TEST PAGES) together when finished with the exam.
Name (please print here):
Write out the full pledge and sign:
How long did this exam take you to complete (excluding typing)?
I. Define these terms - 2 pts each. When the term is followed by an asterisk (*), provide a specific example to further demonstrate your knowledge. These terms can be define succinctly so using a lot of words is not the best way to demonstrate your fluency with these terms. However, do not leave out important information that you assume the reader knows. Be sure to avoid the word "it".
3) immature dendritic cell *
4) cyclosporin A
5) switch regions of Ig genes
7) C3 convertase
9) follicular dendritic cell
10) chemokines *
Questions that require you to synthesize what you know:
1) Explain the selective advantages and selective disadvantages behind the concept of original antigenic sin.
2) Design a potential vaccine to protect us from leprosy. Remember that leprosy lives inside macrophages. There will be more than one right answer to this question but you must provide an answer that is consistent with what we have learned so far. A complete answer will include what is to given to the patient and why this would work as a vaccine.
3) Design a potential vaccine against HIV that will work for a lifetime. Remember that HIV infects CD4+ cells and HIV envelop proteins mutate 65 times faster than the flu virus. There will be more than one right answer to this question but you must provide an answer that is consistent with what we have learned so far. A complete answer will include what is to given to the patient and why this would work as a vaccine.
4) Since IgE gives us mostly allergic responses, why did we evolve it in the first place? In your answer, provide at least three specific effects that contribute to IgE responses being advantageous.
5) Explain how it is possible that so many APC's can wind up congregating in a single infected tissue.
6) We all know plasma cells cannot isotype switch. Think about this: armed TH cells express CD40L after encountering B cells displaying antigen, and IL-4 induces isotype switching. The book is not clear on this fact but you should be able to deduce the answer. Where is the most likely location for isotype switching to occur? To receive full credit, you must explain your answer.
The last two questions are very large ones that integrates
many concepts and processes.
7) Using an outline format, list how your immune system is activated after you have just spent the day with a runny-nose child who has given you a virus that you now must fight off. Begin after the virus has infected your cells and don't stop until all the viruses are gone. This answer should include all the major parts of a complete immune response. You do NOT need to list steps involved in signal transduction pathways.
8) Use an outline format to list the major steps involved in an adaptive immune response that begins with a splinter in your thumb and winds up with an IgG antibody response to eventually eliminate the bacteria that were resting on the splinter. Make sure you include what happens after the antibodies are made that leads to death of the cells. You do NOT need to list steps involved in signal transduction pathways.
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