Terms and Structures (adapted from Kalat, 1998)
Adrenal Medulla the gland near the hypothalamus that secretes the hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine; these hormones are generally responsible for increased heart rate, increase muscle tension, increased blood pressure, and the diversion of blood from internal organs into the skin, brain, and muscles.
Adrenocorticotrpic Hormone the steroid hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the liver to elevate blood sugar and increase the metabolism of proteins and fats.
Amygdala Brain area located within the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex, heavily active during arousal, attack behaviors, escape behaviors, and also memory and sleep. Also heavily active during cognitive-affective activities such as stress appraisal.
Autonomic Nervous System the set of neurons that regulate the functioning of internal organs. It is often divided into two parts, the sympathetic system and the parasympathetic system.
Central Nervous System the brain and spinal cord.
Circulatory System the structures responsible for the transport of blood (fluid, hormones, nutrients, gases) throughout the body.
Cognitive-Affective Integration the pathway that appraises stressful situations involving heavy use of the cerebral cortex and the amygdala.
Endocrine Gland a structure in the brain that produces and secretes hormones ex. pituitary gland.
Epinephrine a hormone also known as adrenaline (see Adrenal Medulla).
Glucocorticoids the class of steroid hormones excreted by the adrenal gland that signal the liver to increase metabolism of fats and carbohydrates into glucose. Ex. cortisol, corticosterone.
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Endocrine Axis The neural pathway that involves the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and endocrine glands.
Hypothalamus the small area near the base of the brain just ventral to the thalamus. The activity includes controlling daily rhythms of activity and sleep, emotional behavior, and most regulation of homeostatic activities.
Limbic System the structures in the forebrain that include the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, olfactory bulb, septum, ,and other small structures, and parts of the thalamus and cerebral cortex.
Midbrain the middle part of the brain, including the tectum, tegmentum, superior colliculus, inferior coliculous and other structures.
Norepinephrine a hormone also known as noradrenaline (see Adrenal Medulla).
Parasympathetic System a division of the autonomic nervous system; the system of nerves innervating the internal organs, tending to stimulate conservation of energy; works in opposition to the sympathetic system.
Peripheral Nervous System any nerve outside the brain and spinal cord. Ex. sensory nerves, motor nerves, interneurons.
Pituitary Gland an endocrine secreting gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus; sometimes called the master gland because of its role in regulating other glands and the timing of hormone release into the bloodstream.
Reflex Arc a circuit of neurons and their connections that is responsible for producing an automatic response to a stimuli.
Sympathetic System a division of the autonomic nervous system; the network of nerves that innervates the internal organs and prepares the body for vigorous activity; works in opposition to the parasympathetic system.
Please do not hesitate to Contact Me with Questions or Comments
This is not a commercial site, but if anyone would like to start paying me for this stuff .