Biology 111: Unit 3                                                   April 2001



All reviews must be turned by 9:30am Wednesday, April 25, 2001


This is a closed book, closed-note review. Once you have read any question your review period has begun. There is no time limit for taking the review. It was designed to be completed in 2 hours.


The questions are yours to keep. This page must be the first page of your answer packet. Fill out the information at the bottom of this sheet and attach this page to the ones containing your answers. The top of each additional page in the packet should contain only your initials and the page number. All answers must be typed and in complete sentences unless otherwise indicated.  Any accompanying graphs or figures may be hand-drawn. You may use a calculator but all calculations must be included in order to receive full credit. Brevity is encouraged but be sure to completely answer the question asked.


Any questions about the review should be directed to me at, 894-2889 (o), or xxx-xxxx (h). Any calls to my home must occur before 9:00pm.




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My signature indicates that I have completed this review following the Honor Code.




This review was completed in ________hours. I completed it at _______ on   ______

                                                                                                            Time                          Date

As part of the Alternative Breaks program this spring you spent a week working for Habitat for Humanity in eastern North Carolina. In the wake of Hurricane Fran a lot of flood damage remains and supplying affordable housing is imperative to helping people recover. The goal is to completely rebuild 3 condemned homes by taking them down to their cement slab foundations and rebuilding.


On the first day everyone in your group tears into demolishing the house. Swinging sledgehammers causes faces to get red and hearts to pound but the exertion feels good.


A)   Define metabolism (3pt)

B)   Metabolically speaking, describe 2 reasons why a pounding heart (increased heart rate) is necessary to continue physical exertion. (4pt)


You are only a sweaty human wrecking ball one week of the year. The rest of the time you are…a biology major. Demolishing the house reminds you of catabolism and the 2 laws of thermodynamics.


C)   Briefly state the 2 laws of thermodynamics (one sentence per law).  How is your house demolition following those laws? (6pt)

D)   In general are catabolic processes endergonic or exergonic? (explain) (3pt)



Lunch break finally comes and you collapse under a tree to gratefully devour the food provided by local civic groups. At the end of your hour break a friend (and fellow sledgehammer-er) remarks that his arm muscles had burned at the beginning of lunch but, thankfully, the burning had gone away now.


E)    Why did their muscles burn before lunch? Describe the metabolic pathway responsible and include the number of carbons found in the compound causing the burning. (6pt)

Bonus: Draw the compound that causes the burning (2pt)




Four glucose consumption versus time graphs follow on the next page. On each graph A represents the time you arrived on the demolition site, B is 30 minutes into demolition and C is when the burning sensation began.


F)    Which graph most accurately describes glucose consumption in your friend with the burning arms? I, II, III, or IV (Write only the number on your answer sheet) (2pt)

G)   Explain the shape of the graph that you chose in F. Be sure to mention metabolic processes responsible for that shape. (4pt)






    Text Box: Glucose consumed (M)    Text Box: Glucose consumed (M)    I.                                                                      II.












III.                                                                                                     Text Box: Glucose consumed (M)    Text Box: Glucose consumed (M)    IV.














Another group member says that someone at their gym swears by daily creatine dietary supplements as an ‘all natural way to fight muscle burning’. You remember that the cellular creatine reaction is

                                        Phosphocreatine kinase

Creatine                                             Creatine Phosphate



                        ATP        ADP


H)   What is ATP? (what do the letters stand for and what kind of molecule is it) (2pt)

I)     How is ATP used as a source of cellular energy? (2pt)

J)      Creatine is the substrate in this reaction that consumes ATP. In theory, how could having higher levels of creatine in your body help battle fatigue in times of exertion? (4pt)

K)   What is substrate level phosphorylation? (3pt)

L)    Consider the catabolic pathways we have discussed. Do pathways that rely on sustrate level phosphorylation produce a high or low percentage of the cell’s ATP. (Include name of pathway(s) that use this process) (+4pt)


During the second day your friend swings the sledgehammer, loses his balance, and falls onto a pile of debris. He gets up, looks around, and goes back to work. He confesses to you that he has more than a bruised ego, he also has a few deep scratches.  Ever since the hurricane C. tetanii and S. typhimurium infections have been a big problem in the area. You tell him to gently squeeze the area in order to get it to bleed and then to wash it and cover it. He understands the wash and cover part but is confused by the ‘bleeding’.


M) Choose the words that correctly complete the following sentence. Bleeding will help combat infection by (C. tetanii/ S. typhimurium/ both bacterium)  (2pt)

N)   Provide the metabolic reasons that support your answer in M. (5pt)

O)   What is the genus of C. tetanii? Describe the toxin produced by this organism. (4pt)


This talk of metabolism and bacteria combined with a coffee break in the warm sun causes a flashback to Bio111 labs. You remember a series of experiments exploiting S. typhimurium for the Ames test and recall that the strains of bacteria used were not the same as those you might find out here ‘in the field’. The strains used are mutants.


P)    What do the mutations effect? (3pt)

Q)   What in the experimental design allows you to determine that a reversion mutation has occurred? (5pt)


You draw a graph of your Ames test results in the dirt. In this test you exposed strain TA102 to UV light for the indicated amounts of time.

First you draw this graph.

Text Box:  # of colonies













R)   According to this graph above is UV light a mutagen? (explain) (3pt)

You then finish drawing the graph

Text Box:  # of colonies
























Your friend says that this shows that all the media attention to the perils of is just hype. He says who ever heard of tanning for 30 seconds and that your data shows that it is actually safer for you if you stay out in the sun longer.


S)    Do you agree with your friend? Provide a scientific explanation of your data


Your lively discussion of infections and mutagens has drawn a crowd. One of the other group members happens to be an amateur plant breeder. The plant breeder has a strange weed that is taking over his flower bed and he wants to know how he can get rid of them. The plants in the flower bed are a new breed of marigold with extra large green leaves and longer lasting flowers. The odd weeds have purple leaves and yellow flowers. Herbicides are out of the question because they will kill the marigolds. After thinking for only a moment you tell him to cover the bed with a dome of purple plastic and that within days the weeds will be dieing or dead and his marigolds will be saved.


T)   Why are you so sure? (Be sure to mention both why the weeds will die and why the marigolds will live) (6pt)


Now seen as an absolute biological guru, other group members keep approaching you with questions. Happy for the chance to let your brain get some exercise while your body rests you do your best to briefly and completely answer the questions. (200words or less each)


U)   Which parts of the Light reactions and Cellular respiration are the most similar? (and why) (5pt)

V)   What is Rubisco and why is it so vital to our lives? (5pt)

W)  We have now met IDH in lab and in lecture. What does IDH do that is so important for the process of generating ATP? (5pt)

X)   Draw a mitochondrion labeling all membranes and ‘spaces’ (4pt). Why is the structure of the mitochondria so critical to the process of harvesting energy. Be sure to include where in the organelle pathways are occurring and why that localization is important. (9pt total)


Every once in a while I hear the comment “Dr Bernd, why didn’t you ask _______? I knew all about that but you didn’t ask.” Well now is your chance. Write and answer a question. It must pertain to the bioenergetics section of the course. My advice is to keep it simple and straight forward.


Y)   Your question and answer. (5pt)