Biology 111: Unit 2 Genetics March 2002
All reviews must be turned by 5:30pm Thursday, March 28th, 2002. Turn them in to me in class or in my office (Watson289). Fill in the Sign in sheet indicating when you handed in your review.
This is a closed book, closed-note review. Once you have read any question your review period has begun. There is no time limit for taking the review. It was designed to be completed in 2 hours and contains 15 questions.
The questions sheets are yours to keep. This page must be the first page of your answer packet. Fill out the information at the bottom of this sheet and attach this page to the ones containing your answers. The top of each additional page in the packet should contain only your initials and the page number. All answers must be typed and in complete sentences unless otherwise indicated. Any accompanying graphs or figures may be hand-drawn. If word limits are given be sure to provide word counts (MSWord will calculate it under the tool menu). You may use a calculator but all calculations must be included in order to receive full credit. Brevity is encouraged but be sure to completely answer the question asked.
Any questions about the review should be directed to me at firstname.lastname@example.org, xx (o), or xx (h). Any calls to my home must occur before 9:00pm.
My signature indicates that I have completed this review following the Honor Code.
This review was completed in ________hours. I completed it at _______ on ______
I attended Dr Cano's talk (bioarcheology)___, the bioethics seminar _____, the chemistry seminar (mylenation)____, Picasso _____, the monks _____.
The review contains questions A- O worth 105 points and 2 bonus questions worth 4 points.
Section 1: The following 9 questions are all related to the following scenario.
In lab you decide to extend your studies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and study the mating of a strain that has short flagella with a strain that has the "normal" long flagella. Using microscopy and a very steady hand you isolate a single mt+ cell that has short flagella and one mt- cell that has long flagella. You obtain a microfuge tube with 20ml of growth media in add the two cells. After six hours you prepare wet mount slides with all of the media. You view the slides on a binocular microscope that has two 10x oculars and a 60x objective using dark field microscopy. You examine the slides multiple times and find only one Chlamydomonas that has long flagella.
A) What is an ocular? (2pt)
B) What is the total magnification provided by this microscope setup? (3pt)
C) Describe what the cells look like in this type of microscopy. Be sure to describe how you can distinguish this type of microscopy from other types of light microscopy. (5pt)
D) Why is there only one Chlamydomonas in the culture? Briefly describe what happened. (6pt)
E) In Morgan notation, what is the genotype of the long flagella Chlamydomonas that remains at the end of the experiment? (3pt)
Bonus: What are the genotypes of the original two cells in Morgan notation and in Mendelian notation? (2pt)
A friend of yours is a chemistry major. As part of her senior thesis she has designed and synthesized a compound that she calls ‘Nonplagiarium’. Nonplagiarium blocks replication by irreversibly binding to the active site of an enzyme. You decide to look at the effects of her compound in your experiment to see what effect plagiarium has on the cells’ asexual reproduction. (The literature tells you that untreated Chlamydomonas reproduce asexually every eight hours.) As before you isolate the mt+ and mt- Chlamydomonas but this time you mix them in growth media containing Nonplagiarium.
F) What is replication and where does it occur? (one sentence. 50word max) (5pt)
G) Name three of the enzymes involved in replication and provide an explanation of each enzyme’s function (one sentence each. 150 word max-total) (9pt)
Previous work has shown that Nonplagiarium is effective as a replication blocker in Chlamydomonas and that cells treated with Nonplagiarium for 50hours are alive. You let your culture incubate for 40 hours and then use microscopy to look at the cells.
H) How many cells are present in the culture after 72 hours? Explain how you came to this number/show your work. (5pt)
Your friend wants to market this compound to hospitals as a way to control bacterial growth. She sees a market for it in a spray form to clean patients’ rooms.
I) What do you think? Considering what you know about the compound and how it affects Chlamydomonas does ‘the biology’ support Nonplariarium as a safe and effective way to control bacteria around people? (explain) (6pt)
Section 2: Answer each of the following questions completely and concisely.
J) What are the similarities and differences between an allele, a chromosome, a gene and a locus? Be sure that your answer contains at least two characteristics that they have in common and enough discussion of differences that each item can be distinguished from the others (16pt) 300 word max
K) A good deal of research went into identifying "the cystic fibrosis gene".
a) What are Mendel’s Law of Segregation and Law of Independent Assortment? (4pt)
b) How did the knowledge of these laws aid researchers in identifying and cloning the cystic fibrosis gene? (Explain the role the laws played in finding the CF gene) (5pt)
L) VNTRs and RFLPs:
a) Define what they are. (6pt)
b) A VNTR and an RFLP have been identified. What methods would you use to compare them between you and I. Be sure to specify which methods will allow you to detect/compare which item. (12pt)
M) RNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase:
a) What is the endproduct of a reaction involving each of these enzymes? (4pt)
b) Not all cells contain both of these enzymes. If a cell does contain both where in the cell would each enzyme be found? (and why) (5pt)
Bonus: Name and draw the bond formed by RNA polymerase (2pt)
N) "If maladaptive mutations are selected against, how do dominant and recessive inherited diseases remain in the population despite their detrimental effects on health?" (4pt) (Question is from the study guide, verbatim)
Every once in a while I hear the comment "Dr Bernd, why didn't you ask _______? I knew all about that but you didn't ask." Well now is your chance. Write and answer a question. It must pertain to the genetics section of the course and it cannot repeat any of the questions I asked. My advice is to keep it simple and straight forward.
O) Your question and answer. (5pt)