Biology 111: Unit 3 April 1999

The review is due Friday April, 16 1999 at 9:30am.

This is a closed-book, closed-note review. Once you have read any question your review period has begun. All answers must be typed. Any accompanying graphs or figures may be hand-drawn. Brevity is encouraged but be sure to completely answer the question asked.

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Section 1 (51 points total)

Using the given list, determine all of the metabolic process(es) for which the following phrases are true. List only the process(es) name on your answer sheet. Processes may be used more than once.

Calvin Cycle, Fermentation, Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Light Reactions,
Nitrogen Fixation, Oxidative Phosphorylation

1. Is an overall endergonic process
2. Occurs in the cytosol
3. Can utilize products of b oxidation to yield ATP
4. Occurs in mitochondria
5. Utilizes reducing power to make ATP
6. Provides components for amino acid biosynthesis
7. Can have an acid as an endproduct

Short answers
Answer each of the following with a few word or phrases

8. ATP ----> ADP + Pi
LIST how the given reaction follows the 2 laws of thermodynamics (5pt)
9. What is the name of the organism we have been using in lab (until 3/31)? (genus and species) (4pt)
10. Explain a spontaneous reaction in terms of free energy. (4pt)
11. What is the difference between an autotroph and an auxotroph? (4pt)
12. Is the organism we used for the Ames test a eukaryote or a prokaryote? (2pt)

Section 2 (49 points total)

Part A. Answer all of the following questions. Provide well-labeled graphs or diagrams where indicated. Hand-drawn figures are sufficient.

1. You are interested in determining whether the "Liver mush" served for breakfast at the Commons is mutagenic. You have decided to perform the Ames test using a strain of bacteria that is susceptible to being mutated and you have a whole lab at your disposal. What positive and negative controls will you perform? How will those controls allow you to accurately interpret your data? (What will each control tell you?) (9pt)

2. You have discovered a novel species of plant that uses a pigment other than chlorophyll to perform photosynthesis. Access the following web address on the World Wide Web: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/Biology/kabernd/111/restricted/specdata.html

    A) Using the given data draw an absorption spectrum for this pigment (a well-labeled hand-drawn  figure is fine). (5pt)
    B) The plant contains only this pigment. If the plant was placed in only yellow light would it be able to perform photosynthesis? (Explain) (5pt)
   C) Draw a diagram of a chloroplast. Label all membranes and "spaces" and indicate where the major metabolic pathways and cycles involved in. (7pt) Why is the "form" of chloroplasts critical to energy production? (5pt)

**bonus**
Draw a mitochondrion. Label all structures and indicate where major metabolic pathways and cycles occur. (2pt diagram, 2pt pathways)

Part B. Answer two of the following four questions. (9pt each)

1. Under identical conditions, some strains used in the Ames test showed a high level of reversion while others did not. In general what is reversion and why was this difference seen? (Include why the "easy reverters" were "easy" and why the others didn't revert as often.)

2.Which process shares more similarities with non-cyclic photophosphorylation, substrate level phosphorylation or oxidative phosphorylation? Include a discussion of similarities as well as differences.

3. Cellular respiration requires movement of molecules across membranes. Explain how the cell transports glucose and CO2. Include the membrane crossed and any energy requirements.

4. Which form of metabolism, anaerobic or aerobic, provides a more efficient use of the energy stored in food? (Be sure to discuss differences between the two forms of metabolism and explain why one is more efficient)