Karen G. Hales, PhD
Department of Biology, Davidson College
Box 7118, Davidson NC 28035-7118
(704) 894-2324


Education

Ph.D., 1997, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Genetics.
Thesis advisor: Dr. Margaret T. Fuller.
Thesis title: Genetic control of mitochondrial morphogenesis during Drosophila spermatogenesis.

B.A., 1991, Swarthmore College.
Distinction in Biology, Phi Beta Kappa.


Academic Appointments

Professor of Biology, 2013-present, Davidson College.

Associate Professor of Biology, 2006-2013, Davidson College.

Assistant Professor of Biology, 2000-2006, Davidson College.

Instructor, Summer 2000 and Summer 1999, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Biology.

Postdoctoral Fellow, 1998-2000, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Genetic analysis of septin protein function in Drosophila.
Advisors: Dr. John R. Pringle and Dr. Mark Peifer.


Grants, Fellowships, Honors, and Awards

National Institutes of Health Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA), 2012-2015
National Science Foundation Research in Undergraduate Institutions (RUI) award, 2012-2015

National Institutes of Health Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA), 2007-2011
MacArthur Assistant Professor of Biology (named professorship), Davidson College, 2003-2005
National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development Award (CAREER), 2002-2007
National Institutes of Health Postdoctoral Fellowship, May 1999-July 2000
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Predoctoral Fellowship, 1991-1996
National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship (declined), 1991
Leo Leva Memorial Prize in Biology (departmental award), Swarthmore College, 1991
Gladys Irish Prize in Athletics, Swarthmore College, 1991
Phi Beta Kappa, 1991
Sigma Xi, 1991
National Merit Scholarship, 1987


Professional Activities

Official Roles in Professional Organizations
Elected member of the North American Drosophila Board, representing primarily undergraduate institutions, 2010-2013
Education Committee, Genetics Society of America, 2012-present. Chair, 2014.

Davidson Committees
Vice Chair of the Faculty pro tem, 2011-2014
VPAA Search Committee, co-chair, 2012-2013
Faculty Executive Committee, 2010-2014
Honorary Degrees Committee, 2011-2014
Web Advisory Group, 2011-2014
Strategic Advisory Committee, 2011-2012
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, 2009-2011
Strategic Plan Implementation Team on Diversity of Faculty and Staff, 2009-2010
Advisory Council on Finance, Personnel, and Development 2007-2010
Advisory Council on Campus and Religious Life, 2007-2009
Advisory Council on Intercollegiate Athletics, 2003-2006
College Composition Committee, 2005-2006
Student Conduct Council, 2001-2004

Workshops and Panels
Drosophila Male Fertility as a Cell Biological Model. Speaker. 55th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA) March 26-30, 2014.
Drosophila Research and Pedagogy at Primarily Undergraduate Institutions. Co-organizer and co-moderator. 46th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), March 30-April 3, 2005.
Drosophila Research and Pedagogy at Primarily Undergraduate Institutions. Co-organizer and co-moderator. 45th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Washington, DC), March 24-28, 2004.
Alternative Career Paths: Life after Stanford. Stanford University School of Medicine Department of Genetics Annual Scientific Meeting (Monterey, CA) September 17-19, 2003.
Research and Pedagogy at Primarily Undergraduate Institutions. Co-organizer and co-moderator. 44th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Chicago, IL), March 5-9, 2003.
Careers at Primarily Undergraduate Institutions. 42nd Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Washington, DC), March 21-25, 2001.
Drosophila Research at Primarily Undergraduate Institutions. Co-organizer and co-moderator. 42nd Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Washington, DC), March 21-25, 2001.

Memberships
Genetics Society of America
American Society for Cell Biology
Sigma Xi Research Society

American Association of University Professors


Publications

Articles and Patents (* indicates undergraduate coauthors)

Hales, K.G. 2013. Denying genetic causality. Review of Genetic Explanations: Sense and Nonsense, edited by Krimsky and Gruber. CBE Life Sciences Education 12: 604-605.

Hales, K.G. 2010. Mitochondrial fusion and division. Nature Education 3(9): 12.

Bergner, L.M.*, F. E. Hickman*, K. H. Wood*, C. M. Wakeman*, H. H. Stone*, T. J. Campbell*, S. B. Lightcap, S. M. Favors, A. C. Aldridge, and K. G. Hales. 2010. A novel predicted bromodomain-related protein affects coordination between meiosis and spermiogenesis in Drosophila and is required for male meiotic cytokinesis. DNA and Cell Biology 29: 487-498.

Hales, K.G. 2010. Iron testes: sperm mitochondria as a context for dissecting iron metabolism. BMC Biology 8: 79. PDF.

Anderson, M.A., J.N. Jodoin, E. Lee, K.G. Hales, T.S. Hays, and L.A. Lee. 2009. asunder coordinates spermatogenesis in Drosophila by regulating dynein-dynactin localization. Mol. Biol. Cell 20: 2709-2721.

Silverman-Gavrila, R.V., K.G. Hales, and A. Wilde. 2008. Anillin-mediated targeting of Peanut to pseudocleavage furrows is regulated by the GTPase Ran. Mol. Biol. Cell. 19: 3735-3744.

Aldridge, A.C., L.P. Benson*, M.M. Siegenthaler*, B.T. Whigham*, R. S. Stowers, and K.G. Hales. 2007. Roles for Drp1, a dynamin-related protein, and Milton, a kinesin-associated protein, in mitochondrial segregation, unfurling, and elongation during Drosophila spermatogenesis. FLY 1: 38-46.

Fuller, M.T., K.G. Hales, and A.H. Santel. 2005. Mitofusins, Fzo homologs, and functional derivatives thereof. United States Patent 6,953,680.

Beckstead, R.B., S.S. Ner, K.G. Hales, T.A. Grigliatti, B.S. Baker, and H.J. Bellen. 2005. Bonus, a TIF1 homologue, interacts with heterochromatin and is an enhancer and suppressor of position effect variegation. Genetics 169: 783-794.

Hales, K.G. 2004. The machinery of mitochondrial fusion, division, and distribution, and emerging connections to apoptosis. Mitochondrion 4: 285-308.

Hales, K.G. 2003. Review of Decoding Darkness: In Search of the Genetic Causes of Alzheimer's Disease by Rudolph E. Tanzi and Ann B. Parson. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education 1(2): R12-R13. PDF.

Shih, H.-P., K.G. Hales, J.R. Pringle, and M. Peifer. 2002. Identification of septin-interacting proteins and characterization of the Smt3/SUMO-conjugation system in Drosophila. J. Cell Sci 115: 1259-1271. PDF.

Hales, K.G. 2001. "Finding a Lost Mouse" Refined. The American Biology Teacher 63: 470.

Fuller, M.T. and K.G. Hales. 2001. Mitofusin genes and their uses. United States Patent 6,284,507.

Fuller, M.T. and K.G. Hales. 2000. Mitofusin genes and their uses. United States Patent 6,127,159.

Hales, K.G., E. Bi, J.-Q. Wu, J.C. Adam, I.-C. Yu, and J.R. Pringle. 1999. Cytokinesis: an emerging unified theory for eukaryotes? Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 11: 717-725. PDF.

Hermann, G.J., J. Thatcher, J. P. Mills, K.G. Hales, M. T. Fuller, J. Nunnari, and J. M. Shaw. 1998. Mitochondrial fusion in yeast requires the transmembrane GTPase Fzo1p. J. Cell Biol. 143: 359-373. PDF.

Molina, I., S. Baars, J. A. Brill, K. G. Hales, M.T. Fuller, and P. Ripoll. 1997. A chromatin-associated kinesin-related protein required for normal mitotic chromosome segregation in Drosophila. J. Cell Biol. 139: 1361-1371. PDF.

Hales, K.G. and M.T. Fuller. 1997. Developmentally regulated mitochondrial fusion mediated by a conserved novel predicted GTPase. Cell 90: 121-129. PDF.


Abstracts (* indicates undergraduate coauthors)

*Sawyer, E.M., L. Regruto, *O. Brown, *Y. Hwang, *L. Ivey , K.G. Hales. 2014. The testis-enriched ATP synthase subunit d paralog Ms(2)1400 is required for Nebenkern organization and elongation in Drosophila spermatogenesis. 55th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA) 381B.

*Pyfrom, S., *B. Wagner, J. WInkle, L. Regruto, *D. Harris, *B. English, K.G. Hales. 2013. AAA ATPases connecting mitochondrial dynamics with microtubule dynamics in Drosophila spermatogenesis. 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (New Orleans, LA), 1576.

*Wagner, B.L., L.A. Regruto, *M. Lorenzo, *J. Gerard, *S.C. Pyfrom, K.G. Hales. 2013. Localization and functional analysis of Nmd and CG4701 AAA proteins in mitochondrial and microtubule dynamics in Drosophila spermatogenesis. 54th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Washington, DC), 142.

*Sawyer, E.M, *O. Brown, *Y. Hwang, *L. Ivey, *K.E. Sheaffer, *C.O. Field, *T. Gunnell, K.G. Hales. 2013. Roles for testis-enriched ATP synthase subunits in mitochondrial shaping during Drosophila spermatogenesis. 54th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Washington, DC), 200B.

*W.S. Mitchell, K.G. Hales. 2013. Characterizing the genetic basis for mitochondrial shaping defects in emmenthal mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. 54th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Washington, DC), 199A.

*Hwang, Y., *L. Ivey, *O. Brown, *C. Field, *M. Lorenzo, *K. Sheaffer, K.G. Hales. 2012. Roles for tissue-specific ATP synthase subunits in mitochondrial shaping. 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (San Francisco, CA), 2197.

*Hwang, Y., *L. Ivey, K.G. Hales. 2012. A testis-enriched predicted ATP synthase subunit required for mitochondrial shaping during spermatogenesis. 53rd Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Chicago, IL), 584B.

*Wagner, B.L., *S.C. Pyfrom, K.G. Hales. 2012. Determining molecular roles of CG4701 and nmd in Drosophila spermatogenesis through analysis of β tubulin and anillin localization. 53rd Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Chicago, IL), 586A.

*Campbell, T., *C. Genetti, *C. Lima, *T. Gunnell, *C. Shaffner, K. G. Hales. 2011. Possible roles in spermatid mitochondrial shaping for testis-specific paralogs of ATP synthase subunits. 52nd Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), 595A.

*Pyfrom, S.C., *L. Smith, S. Lightcap, H. White-Cooper, K.G. Hales. 2011. Characterizing the function of nmd in mitochondrial morphogenesis and in cytokinesis during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. 52nd Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), 604A.

*Ivey, L.E., *T. Campbell, C. Wood, A. Mahowald, M.T. Fuller, K. G. Hales. 2011. Characterization of a candidate gene for ms(2)1400, a gene required for the internal structure of the Nebenkern in Drosophila spermatids. 52nd Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), 600C.

*Coughtrey, D., *L. Smith, *H. Stone, *B. English, K. G. Hales. 2011. Role of CG4701 in mitochondrial morphogenesis during Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis. 52nd Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), 597C.

*Pyfrom, S.C, *L.K. Smith, *D.G. Coughtrey-Davenport, *B.C. English, *S.T. Burke, S.B. Lightcap, S. Favors, M.T. Fuller, H. White-Cooper, K.G. Hales. 2010. AAA ATPases with dual roles in mitochondrial shaping and microtubule modulation. 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (Philadelphia, PA), 2196.

*Ivey, L.E., *D. Coughtrey-Davenport, C.G. Wood, P.G. Wilson, A. Mahowald, M. T. Fuller, and K. G. Hales. 2010.  Identification and characterization of a candidate gene for ms(2)1400, a gene required for unfurling and elongation of mitochondrial derivatives during Drosophila spermatogenesis. 51st Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Washington, DC), 548B.

Lightcap, S.B., *H. H. Stone, *B. C. English, S. E. Favors, K.G. Hales. 2010. An AAA ATPase required for mitochondrial morphogenesis in developing Drosophila spermatids associates with both mitochondria and centrosomes. 51st Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Washington, DC), 549C.

*Bergner, L.M., *F. E. Hickman, *K. H. Wood, S. M. Favors, A. C. Aldridge, K. G. Hales. 2009. mitoshell, a novel gene required for mitochondrial aggregation and cytokinesis in Drosophila spermatogenesis, affects formation of the meiotic central spindle and the contractile ring. 50th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Chicago, IL), 546C.

*English, B.C., *S. D. Durnbaugh, *K. M. Koehrn, *S. H. Holmberg, S. E. Favors, K. G. Hales. 2008. Characterization of the hypomorphic male sterile nmdry4 allele and analysis of the nmd paralog
CG4701’s putative role in spermatid mitochondrial shaping. 49th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), Program and Abstracts 496A.

*Wood, K. H., *L. M. Bergner, *F. E. Hickman, *M. C. Beaucaire, A. C. Aldridge, S. E. Favors, K. G. Hales. 2008. Cloning and characterization of mitoshell, a gene required for normal mitochondrial aggregation during Drosophila spermatogenesis. 49th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), Program and Abstracts 505A.

Favors, S.E., K.G. Hales. 2008. Separation of Nebenkern anchoring and mitochondrial elongation phenotypes in germ line clones of a milton allele.49th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), Program and Abstracts 497B.

*Wood, K. H., *L. M. Bergner, *F. E. Hickman, S. E. Favors, A. C. Aldridge, K. G. Hales. 2007. Identification of a Drosophila gene required for proper timing and configuration of mitochondrial aggregation during spermatogenesis. 47th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (Washington, DC). Late Abstracts Volume 2806.

Hales, K.G., *S. E. Coffey, S. E. Favors, A. C. Aldridge. 2007. Roles for mitoshell in mitochondrial aggregation and meiotic cytokinesis during Drosophila spermatogenesis. 48th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Philadelphia, PA), Program and Abstracts 532A.

*English, B.C., *S. D. Durnbaugh, *K. M. Koehrn, A. C. Aldridge, S. H. Holmberg, K. G. Hales. 2007. Characterization of nmd and its paralog in mitochondrial morphogenesis in Drosophila spermatogenesis. 48th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Philadelphia, PA), Program and Abstracts 530B.

Aldridge, A. C., *S. E. Coffey, *B. C. English, S. E. Favors, K. G. Hales. 2006. Roles for mitoshell in mitochondrial aggregation and meiotic cytokinesis in Drosophila spermatogenesis. 46th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (San Diego, CA). Late Abstracts Volume L113(W).

*Durnbaugh, S.D., *K.M. Koehrn, A.C. Aldridge, *C.M. Black, *K.O. Saunders, *S.H. Holmberg, and K.G. Hales. 2006. Function of no mitochondrial derivative  in mitochondrial morphogenesis during spermatogenesis. 47th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Houston, TX), Program and Abstracts 497A.

Hales, K.G., *L.P. Benson, *M.M. Siegenthaler, *B.T. Whigham, R.S. Stowers, and A.C. Aldridge. 2006. Roles for milton and Drp1 in mitochondrial morphogenesis during Drosophila spermatogenesis. 47th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Houston, TX), Program and Abstracts 500A.

Aldridge, A.C., *L.P. Benson, *M.M. Siegenthaler, *B.T. Whigham, R.S. Stowers, and K.G. Hales. 2005. Roles for milton and Drp1 in mitochondrial morphogenesis during Drosophila spermatogenesis. 45th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (San Francisco, CA). Late Abstracts Volume L407.

*Whigham, B.T., *M. M. Siegenthaler, R. S. Stowers, and K.G. Hales. 2005. Milton functions in mitochondrial elongation during Drosophila spermatogenesis. 46th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), Program and Abstracts 577A.

*Baxley, S.E., *Holmberg, S.H., *Burke, S.T., Aldridge, A.C., *Black, C.M., *Whigham, B.T., and K.G. Hales. 2004. Genetic control of mitochondrial aggregation during Drosophila spermatogenesis: characterization of the no mitochondrial derivative and mitoshell genes. 44th  Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (Washington, DC). Late Abstracts L318.

*Baxley, S.E., *S.T. Burke, and K.G. Hales. 2004. Genetic control of mitochondrial aggregation during spermatogenesis: characterization of an nmd candidate gene. 45th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Washington, DC), Program and Abstracts 587B.

*Holmberg, S.H. and K.G. Hales. 2004. Characterization of the subcellular localization of the nmd gene product. 45th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Washington, DC), Program and Abstracts 592A.

Hales, K.G. 2003. Synthesizing molecular and classical genetics in inquiry-based laboratory courses for undergraduates. 43rd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (San Francisco, CA). Late Abstracts L414.

*Siegenthaler, M.M., R. S. Stowers, and K. G. Hales. 2003. Role of milton in mitochondrial morphogenesis during Drosophila spermatogenesis. 44th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Chicago, IL), Program and Abstracts: 648C.

*Quillian, L.B., *M.M. Wilson , K.G. Hales. 2003. Characterization and mapping of new Drosophila mutants defective in mitochondrial morphogenesis during spermatogenesis. 44th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Chicago, IL), Program and Abstracts: 645C.

*Burke, S.T., *J.F. Sturgill, N. Wolf, M.T. Fuller, and K.G. Hales. 2002. Genetic control of mitochondrial aggregation during Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis. 2002 Meeting on Germ Cells (Cold Spring Harbor, NY, October 2002).

*Burke, S.T., *J.F. Sturgill, N. Wolf, M.T. Fuller, and K.G. Hales. 2002. Identification of a candidate gene for no mitochondrial derivative (nmd). 43rd Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), Program and Abstracts: 631A.

*Wilson, M.M. and K.G. Hales. 2002. Characterization of new Drosophila mutants defective in mitochondrial morphogenesis during spermatogenesis. 43rd Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), Program and Abstracts: 642C.

*Burke, S., *J.F. Sturgill, and K.G. Hales. 2001. Molecular cloning of the nmd gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Sigma Xi Student Research Symposium (Raleigh, NC), D10.

Hales, K.G. 2001. A semester-long laboratory project synthesizing molecular and classical approaches to gene mapping and cloning. 42nd Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Washington, DC), Program and Abstracts: 3W.

Hales, K.G., M. Peifer, and J.R. Pringle. 2000. Genetic analysis of the Sep2 and Sep5 septins. 41st Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Pittsburgh, PA), Program and Abstracts: 456B.

Shih, H.-P., K.G. Hales, M. Peifer, and J.R. Pringle. 2000. Identification and characterization of a Drosophila ubiquitin-like protein conjugation pathway that may be involved in septin modification. 41st Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Pittsburgh, PA), Program and Abstracts: 35.

Hales, K.G., O. Al-Awar, M. Peifer, and J.R. Pringle. 1999. Immunolocalization, structural studies, and genetic analysis of the Sep2 septin. 40th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Bellevue, WA), Program and Abstracts: 292C.

Hales, K.G. and M.T. Fuller. 1997. Novel predicted GTPase is required for developmentally regulated mitochondrial fusion during spermatogenesis. 38th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Chicago, IL), Program and Abstracts: 13C.

Hales, K.G. and M.T. Fuller. 1996. A novel transmembrane GTPase is required for developmentally regulated mitochondrial fusion during Drosophila spermatogenesis. 6th International Congress on Cell Biology and 36th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (San Francisco, CA). Molec. Biol. Cell 7: 615a.

Hales, K.G. and M.T. Fuller. 1996. The Drosophila fuzzy onions gene encodes a putative GTPase required for mitochondrial fusion during spematogenesis. Howard Hughes Medical Institute Meeting of Predoctoral and Physician Postdoctoral Fellows (Chevy Chase, MD), Program and Abstracts: 49.

Hales, K.G. and M.T. Fuller. 1996. Genetic control of mitochondrial fusion during spermatogenesis: cloning of the fuzzy onions gene. 37th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (San Diego, CA), Program and Abstracts: 221B.

Hales, K.G. and M.T. Fuller. 1995. The fuzzy onions gene affects mitochondrial fusion during spermatogenesis. 36th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Atlanta, GA), Program and Abstracts: 137A.

Hales, K.G. and M.T. Fuller. 1994. Genetic control of mitochondrial morphogenesis during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. 34th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (San Francisco, CA). Molec. Biol. Cell 5: 99a.

Hales, K. and M. Fuller. 1994. Genetic control of mitochondrial morphogenesis during spermatogenesis. 35th Annual Drosophila Research Conference (Chicago, IL), Program and Abstracts: 110A.

Fuller, M.T., K. Hales, I. Molina, and G. Hime. 1993. Cellular mechanisms of spermatid differentiation. 33rd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (New Orleans, LA). Molec. Biol. Cell 4: 30a.