Image 12: Cephalopod (from Corel).

References

Ali, M. 1984. Photoreception and Vision in Invertebrates. Plenum Press, New York.

Budelmann, B., and J. Young. 1993. The Oculomotor System of Decapod Cephalopods: Eye Muscles, Eye Muscle Nerves, and the Oculomotor Neurons in the Central Nervous System. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Biological Sciences. 340 (1291) 93-125.

Callaerts, P., W. Gehring, G. Halder, L. Kos, S. Tomarev, R. Zinovieva, and J. Piatigorsky. 1997.
Squid pax-6 and eye development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (6) 2421-2426.

Campbell, N., L. Mitchell, and J. Reece. 1999. Biology. 5th Edition. Addison Wesley Longman Inc, New Jeresy.

Chrachri, A., R. Williamson. 1998. Synaptic interactions between Crista hair Cells in the Statocyst of the Squid Alloteuthis subulata. The Journal of Neurophysiology. 80 (2) 656-666.

Davson, H. 1972. The Physiology of the Eye. Academic Press, New York.

Doughty, M., G. Sivak, and J. West. 1995. Microscopical Evaluation of the Crystalline Lens of the Squid (Loligo opalescens) during Embryonic Development. Experimental Eye Research. 60 (1) 19-35.

Gehring, W. 2001. The Genetic Control of Eye Development and its Implications for the Evolution of the Various Eye-Types. Zoology. 104 (3-4): 171-183.

Harris, W. March 1997. Pax-6: Where to be Conserved is not Conservative. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 94: 2098-2100. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/94/6/2098/F1. October 5, 2003.

Ichikawa, M., G. Matsumoto, R. Williamson. 1994. Neuronal Circuits in Cephalopod Vision. Netherlands Journal of Zoology. 44(3-4): 272-283.

Lane, F. 1960. Kingdom of Octopus. Sheridan House, New York.

Muntz, W.R.A. 1991. Anatomical and Behavioral Studies on Vision in Nautilusand Octopus. American Malacological Bulletin. 9 (1): 69-74.

Ondracek, R. 2002. The Human Eye: The Blind Spot. Version 3.0. http://www.physics.unl.edu/~fulcrum/resources/modules/humaneye-blindspot.pdf. October 9, 2003.

Rodieck, R. 1998.The First Steps in Seeing. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts.

Tomarev, S. Dec., 1997. Pax-6, Eyes Absent, and Prox 1 in Eye Development. International Journal of Developmental Biology. 41 (6) 835-842.

Wells, M.J. 1962. Brain and Behavior in Cephalopods. Standford University Press, Stanford.

Wells, M.J. 1978. Octopus: Physiology and Behaviour of an Advanced Invertebrate. Chapman and Hall, London.

Williams, L. 1951?. The Anatomy of the Common Squid. The American Museum of Natural History: New York.

Williamson, R. 1995. A Sensory Basis for Orientation in Cephalopods. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 75 (1) 83- 92.

Young, J. Z. 1971. The Anatomy of the Nervous System of Octopus Vulgaris. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Image References

Chauvel, B. 2003. Octopus Eye. Visual Diving. http://www.visualdiving.com. October 3, 2003.

Corel

Day, C., J. Wood. 2003. Octopus digueti. Cephbase. http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/. October 15, 2003.

Harris, W. March 1997. Pax-6: Where to be Conserved is not Conservative. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 94: 2098-2100. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/94/6/2098/F1. October 5, 2003.

Ichikawa, M., G. Matsumoto, R. Williamson. 1994. Neuronal Circuits in Cephalopod Vision. Netherlands Journal of Zoology. 44(3-4): 272-283.

Patton, P. The Visual System II. http://soma.npa.uiuc.edu/courses/bio303/Ch11b.html. October 4, 2003. Taken and adapted from Land, M.F. 1981. Handbook of Sensory Physiology: “Optics and Vision in Invertebrates.” Ed. H. Autrum. Vol. 2, Book 6. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Rodieck, R. 1998.The First Steps in Seeing. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts.

Semo, Ma'ayan. 1998. Evolution of the Eye: Morphology and Developmental Patterns. http://www.maayan.uk.com/evoeyes1.html. October 2, 2003. Image taken from: Halder, G., P. Callaerts, and W.J. Gehring. New Perspectives on Eye Evolution. Current Opinions In Genetics & Development. 1995; 5:602-60.

Wells, M.J. 1962. Brain and Behavior in Cephalopods. Standford University Press, Stanford.

Development of the Vertebrate and Cephalopod Eye   The Cephalopod Eye 1 The Cephalopod Eye 2

 

Cephalopod Statocysts

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