References:

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Bucher, T. 1992. Ventilatory and metabolic dynamics during entry into and arousal from torpor in Selasphorus hummingbirds. Physiological Zoology. 65(5): 978-993.

 

Bucher, T. 1997. Respiratory exchange and ventilation during nocturnal torpor in hummingbirds. Physiological Zoology. 70(1): 45-52.

 

Calder, W. 1994. When do hummingbirds use torpor in nature? Physiological Zoology. 67(5): 1051-1076.

 

Carpenter, F. 1974. Torpor in an Andean hummingbird- its ecological significance. Science. 183(4124): 545-547.

 

Carpenter, F. 1988. A new function for torpor- fat conservation in a wild migrant hummingbird. The Condor. 90(2): 373-378.

 

Carpenter, F. 1993. Biphasic mass gain in migrant hummingbirds- body-composition changes, torpor, and ecological significance. Ecology. 74(4): 1173-1182.

 

Geiser, F. 1995. Hibernation versus daily torpor in mammals and birds- physiological variables and classification of torpor patterns. Physiological Zoology. 68(6): 935-966.

 

Hiebert, S. 1990. Energy costs and temporal organization of torpor in the rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus). Physiological Zoology. 63(6): 1082-1097.

 

Hiebert, S. 1991. Seasonal differences in the response of rufous hummingbirds to food restriction- body-mass and the use of torpor. The Condor. 93(3): 526.

 

Hiebert, S. 1992. Time-dependent thresholds for torpor initiation in the rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus). Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 126(3): 249-255.

 

Hiebert, S. 1993. Seasonal-changes in body-mass and use of torpor in a migratory hummingbird. The Auk. 110(4): 787-797.

 

Hiebert, S. 2000. Corticosterone and nocturnal torpor in the rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 120(2): 220-234.

 

McKechnie, A. 2002. Avian facultative hypothermic responses: a review. The Condor. 104(4): 705-724.

 

Merola-Zwartjes, M. 2000. Ecological energetics of the Puerto Rican Tody: heterothermy, torpor, and intra-island variation. Ecology. 81(4): 990-1003.

 

Powers, D. 2003. Influence of normal daytime fat deposition on laboratory measurements of torpor use in territorial versus nonterritorial hummingbirds. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 76(3): 389-397.

 

Wolf, L. 1970. Regulation of oxygen consumption and body temperature during torpor in a hummingbird, Eulampis jugularis. Science. 168(3929):368-369.

 

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