Literature Cited

Bron KM. 1966. Arterial Constrictor Response in a Diving Mammal. Science 152(3721): 540-543. 

Fuson AL. 2003. Adaptations to Diving Hypoxia in the Heart, Kidneys and Splanchnic Organs of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina). Journal of Experimental Biology 206(22): 4139-4154.

Hochachka PW. 1975. Metabolic Consequences of Diving in Animals and Man. Science 187(4177): 613-621.

Hooker SK. 2005. Ascent Exhalations of Antarctic Fur Seals: A Behavioural Adaptation for Breath-Hold Diving? Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 272(1561): 355-363

Kooyman, G.L. & Ponganis, P.J. 1998 The physiological basis of diving to depth: birds and mammals. A Rev. Physiol. 60, 19-32

Kooyman, G.L. 1985 Physiology without restraint in diving mammals.  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 1, 166-178.

Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2007 © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. Accessed 5 October 2007.

Mottishaw PD. 1999. The Diving Response Mechanism and its Surprising Evolutionary Path in Seals and Sea Lions. American Zoologist 39(2): 434-450.

National Seal Sanctuary.  Seals Pupil Factsheet. Accessed 15 October 2007.

Rowell, L.B. (1986). Human Circulation Regulation During Physical Stress.  Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Sato, K., Naito, Y., Kato, A., Niizuma, Y., Watanuki, Y., Charrassin, J.B., Bost, C.-A., Handrich, Y. & Le Maho, Y. 2002 Buoyancy and maximal diving depth in penguins: do they control inhaling air volume? J. Exp. Biol. 205, 1189-1197.

Scheffer, Victoria B. 1952. Outline for Ecological Life History Studies of Marine Mammals. Ecology 33(2): 287-296.

Wikipedia. 13 October 2007.  Accessed 15 October 2007. 

Williams TM. 1999. The Evolution of Cost Efficient Swimming in Marine Mammals: Limits to Energetic Optimization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 354(1380): 193-201.

Williams TM. 2000. Sink or Swim: Strategies for Cost-Efficient Diving by Marine Mammals. Science 288(5463): 133-136.


Photo provided by Corel with permission


Fun Seal Facts
Important Terms
Diving Mammal Basics
Adaptations and Physiological Control
Possible Future Studies or Areas of Exploration
Literature Cited
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This website was created as a part of a class project in the
Animal Physiology Class at Davidson College.

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