Image courtesy of

Physiology of Stingray Venom

Home Introduction Stingray Barb


- Optimum Conditions

Effects of Stingray Envenomation

Treatments References & Relevant Sites



Anthoni, Floor. (n.d.). Photos of eagle rays and sting rays. Retrieved October 17, 2010 from

Barbaro, K.C. , Lira, M.S. , Malta, M.B. , Soares, S.L. , Neto, D.G., Cardoso, J.L.C., Santoro, M.L., & Haddad Junior, V.(2007). Comparative study on extracts from the tissue covering the stingers of freshwater (Potamotrygon falkneri) and marine (Dasyatis guttata) stingrays. Toxicon, 50(5), 676-687.

Clark, R.F., Girard, R.H., Rao, D., Ly, B.T., & Davis, D.P. (2007). Stingray envenomation: a retrospective review of clinical presentation and treatment in 119 cases. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 33(1), 33-37.

Dehghani, H., Sajjadi, M.M., Parto, P., Rajaian, H. , & Mokhlesi, A. (2010). Histological characterization of the special venom secretory cells in the stinger of rays in the northern waters of persian gulf and oman sea. Toxicon, 55(6), 1188-1194.

Dehghani, H., Sajjadi, M.M. , Rajaian, H., Sajedianfard, J., & Parto, P. (2009). Study of patient's injuries by stingrays, lethal activity determination and cardiac effects induced by Himantura gerrardi venom. Toxicon, 54(6), 881-886.

Diaz, J.H. (2008). The evaluation, management, and prevention of stingray injuries in travelers. Journal of Travel Medicine, 15(2), 102-109.

Evans, R.J., & Davies, R.S. (1996). Stingray injury. Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine, 13(3), 224-225.

Germain, M., Smith, K.J., & Skelton, H. (2000). The cutaneous cellular infiltrate to stingray envenomization contains increased TIA+ cells. British Journal of Dermatology, 143, 1074-1077.

Haddad Junior, V., Neto, D.G., Batista de Paula Neto, J., Portella de Luna Marques, F., & Barbaro, K.C. (2003). Freshwater stingrays: study of epidemiologic, clinic and therapeutic aspects based on 84 envenomings in humans and some enzymatic activities of the venom. Toxicon, 43(3), 287-294.

Magalhaes, M.R., Jorge da Silva Junior., N., & Ulhoa, C J. (2008). A hyaluronidase from Potamotrygon motoro (freshwater stingrays) venom: Isolation and characterization. Toxicon, 51(6), 1060-1067.

Magalhaes, K.W. , Lima, C. , Piran-Soares, A.A. , Marques, E.E. , Hiruma-Lima, C.A. , & Lopes-Ferreira, M. . (2006). Biological and biochemical properties of the brazilian potamotrygon stingrays: Potamotrygon cf. scobina and potamotrygon gr. orbignyi. Toxicon, 47(5), 575-58.

Pedroso, C.M., Jared, C., Charvet-Almeida, P., Almeida, M.P., Neto, D.G., Lira, M.S., Haddad Junior., V., Barbaro, K.C., & Antoniazzi, M.M. (2007). Morphological characterization of the venom secretory epidermal cells in the stinger of marine and freshwater stingrays. Toxicon, 50(5), 688-697.

Russell, F.E., Fairchild, M.D., & Michaelson, J. (1958). Some properties of the venom of the stingray. Medical arts and sciences, 12, 78-86.

Schwartz, F. J. (2007). A survey of tail spine characteristics of stingrays frequenting african, arabian to chagos-maldive archipelago waters. Smithiana Bulletin, 8, 41-52.

Tennesen, M. (2005). Feeling the sting. National Wildlife, 43(5), 20-22.

Medicinenet. (1996). Retrieved October 5, 2010 from

Merriam-webster online. Retrieved September 28, 2010, from

Sharks and rays of the world: elasmodiver. (n.d.). Retrieved October 5, 2010 from


Relevant Sites

1. If you want to learn more about stingrays and see them face to face, the Georgia Aquarium is the world's largest aquarium and has many stingrays for visitors to enjoy:

2. The Monterey Bay Aquarium is another great place to see stingrays in person and to learn more about the many creatures of the ocean:

3. The National Geographic page on stingrays contains more information on these organisms including statistics, photos, and general information:

4. SeaFriends has lots of information on sea and marine conservation along with specific information on stingrays and many great pictures:

5. Elasmodiver is a site devoted to stingrays and sharks and it includes photos, general information, and scuba diving information:


Email me!

Topics in Animal Physiology