Image courtesy of http://www.seafriends.org.nz/
Physiology of Stingray Venom
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Anthoni, Floor. (n.d.). Photos of eagle rays and sting rays. Retrieved October 17, 2010 from http://www.seafriends.org.nz/images/rays.htm
Barbaro, K.C. , Lira, M.S. , Malta, M.B. , Soares, S.L. , Neto, D.G., Cardoso, J.L.C., Santoro, M.L., & Haddad Junior, V.(2007). Comparative study on extracts from the tissue covering the stingers of freshwater (Potamotrygon falkneri) and marine (Dasyatis guttata) stingrays. Toxicon, 50(5), 676-687.
Clark, R.F., Girard, R.H., Rao, D., Ly, B.T., & Davis, D.P. (2007). Stingray envenomation: a retrospective review of clinical presentation and treatment in 119 cases. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 33(1), 33-37.
Dehghani, H., Sajjadi, M.M., Parto, P., Rajaian, H. , & Mokhlesi, A. (2010). Histological characterization of the special venom secretory cells in the stinger of rays in the northern waters of persian gulf and oman sea. Toxicon, 55(6), 1188-1194.
Dehghani, H., Sajjadi, M.M. , Rajaian, H., Sajedianfard, J., & Parto, P. (2009). Study of patient's injuries by stingrays, lethal activity determination and cardiac effects induced by Himantura gerrardi venom. Toxicon, 54(6), 881-886.
Diaz, J.H. (2008). The evaluation, management, and prevention of stingray injuries in travelers. Journal of Travel Medicine, 15(2), 102-109.
Evans, R.J., & Davies, R.S. (1996). Stingray injury. Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine, 13(3), 224-225.
Germain, M., Smith, K.J., & Skelton, H. (2000). The cutaneous cellular infiltrate to stingray envenomization contains increased TIA+ cells. British Journal of Dermatology, 143, 1074-1077.
Haddad Junior, V., Neto, D.G., Batista de Paula Neto, J., Portella de Luna Marques, F., & Barbaro, K.C. (2003). Freshwater stingrays: study of epidemiologic, clinic and therapeutic aspects based on 84 envenomings in humans and some enzymatic activities of the venom. Toxicon, 43(3), 287-294.
Magalhaes, M.R., Jorge da Silva Junior., N., & Ulhoa, C J. (2008). A hyaluronidase from Potamotrygon motoro (freshwater stingrays) venom: Isolation and characterization. Toxicon, 51(6), 1060-1067.
Magalhaes, K.W. , Lima, C. , Piran-Soares, A.A. , Marques, E.E. , Hiruma-Lima, C.A. , & Lopes-Ferreira, M. . (2006). Biological and biochemical properties of the brazilian potamotrygon stingrays: Potamotrygon cf. scobina and potamotrygon gr. orbignyi. Toxicon, 47(5), 575-58.
Pedroso, C.M., Jared, C., Charvet-Almeida, P., Almeida, M.P., Neto, D.G., Lira, M.S., Haddad Junior., V., Barbaro, K.C., & Antoniazzi, M.M. (2007). Morphological characterization of the venom secretory epidermal cells in the stinger of marine and freshwater stingrays. Toxicon, 50(5), 688-697.
Russell, F.E., Fairchild, M.D., & Michaelson, J. (1958). Some properties of the venom of the stingray. Medical arts and sciences, 12, 78-86.
Schwartz, F. J. (2007). A survey of tail spine characteristics of stingrays frequenting african, arabian to chagos-maldive archipelago waters. Smithiana Bulletin, 8, 41-52.
Tennesen, M. (2005). Feeling the sting. National Wildlife, 43(5), 20-22.
Medicinenet. (1996). Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/hp.asp
Merriam-webster online. Retrieved September 28, 2010, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/
Sharks and rays of the world: elasmodiver. (n.d.). Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://elasmodiver.com/
1. If you want to learn more about stingrays and see them face to face, the Georgia Aquarium is the world's largest aquarium and has many stingrays for visitors to enjoy: http://www.georgiaaquarium.org/
2. The Monterey Bay Aquarium is another great place to see stingrays in person and to learn more about the many creatures of the ocean: http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/
3. The National Geographic page on stingrays contains more information on these organisms including statistics, photos, and general information: http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/stingray/
4. SeaFriends has lots of information on sea and marine conservation along with specific information on stingrays and many great pictures: http://www.seafriends.org.nz/
5. Elasmodiver is a site devoted to stingrays and sharks and it includes photos, general information, and scuba diving information: http://www.elasmodiver.com/
Topics in Animal Physiology