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Physiology of Stingray Venom

Home Introduction Stingray Barb


- Optimum Conditions

Effects of Stingray Envenomation

Treatments References & Relevant Sites


Vocabulary Terms

Arrhythmia – abnormal heart rate.  Either too fast, too slow, too early, or too irregular.
Botulism – paralysis of muscles caused by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. This can occur when the toxin in a wound becomes infected.
Cardiovascular – dealing with the heart and blood vessels
Cellulitis- Skin inflammation, warmth, or redness due to an infection
Convulsions – involuntary muscle contractions.  Usually seen in those with seizures.
Edema – swelling of soft tissues caused by the accumulation of fluid.
Erythema – redness of the skin caused by inflammation.
Fasciculations – muscle spasms, or involuntary muscle contractions
Gangrene – tissue death caused by a lack of blood flow to the affected area.
Hemorrhagic Fever-high fever, chills, headaches, coughing, and pain in muscles or joints. 
Hypotension – drop in blood pressure
Laceration – a cut
Necrosis – cell or tissue death
Nociception – perception of pain
Paralysis – loss of voluntary motor function
Paresthesia – irritation of the skin including numbness, pricking, or tingling.
Ulcer – region of tissue erosion which can potentially become infected or inflamed.

Image of Southern Stingray in captivity. Courtesy of Kari McKeirnan

Vocabulary definitions:


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