Chown, S.L. and Sinclair, B.J. 2005. Climatic variability and hemispheric differences in insect cold tolerance: support from southern Africa. Functional Ecology 19: 214-221
Costanzo, J. P. and R. E. J. Lee.1994. Biophysical and physiological responses promoting freeze tolerance in vertebrates.
Constanzo, Jon. P. and Jr., Richard E. Lee.1998. Biological Ice Nucleation and Ice Distribution in Cold Hardy Ectothermic Animals. Annual Review Physiology. 60:55-72
Duman, John G. 2001. Antifreeze and Ice Nucleator Proteins in Terrestrial Arthropods. Annual Review Physiology 63:327-67
Duman et al. 1991. Adaptations of Insects to Subzero Temperatures. The Quarterly Review of Biology. 66: 387-410
Duman JG and Horwath, K. 1982. Involvement of the Circadian System in Photoperiodic Regulation of Insect Antifreeze Proteins. The Journal of Experimental Zoology 219:267-270
Duman, J. and Horwath, K. 1983. The Role of Hemolymph Proteins in the Cold Tolerance of Insects. Annual Review Physiology. 45:261-70
Fuller,Barry. 2004. Cryoprotectants: The Essential Antifreezes to Protect Life in the Frozen State.CryoLetters. 25: 375-388
Meyer, John. "Insect Physiology:Circulatory System" http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent435/tutorial/circulatory.html Accessed: 10/19/2011
Pfister TD and Storey KB (2006) Responses of Protein Phosphatases and cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase in a Freeze-Avoiding Insect, Epiblema scudderiana. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 62:43-54
Ramlov, Hans. 2000. Aspects of natural cold tolerance in ectothermic animals. Human Reproduction. Vol. 15: 26-46
Sinclair BJ, Addo-Bediako A, and Chown SL. 2003. Climactic variability and the evolution of insect freeze tolerance. Biological Reviews 78:181-195
Storey, Kenneth B. and Storey, Janet M. 1996. Natural Freezing Survival in Animals. Annual Review Ecol. Syst. 27:365-.
Strathdee, A.T. and J.S. Bale. 1998. LIFE ON THE EDGE: Insect Ecology in Artic Environments. Annual Review Entomology 43:85-106
"Cryopreservation." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryopreservation Accessed: 10/19/2011
Zachariassen KE.1985.Physiological Reviews: Physiology of Cold Tolerance in Insects. The American Physiological Society 65:799-832