Resources and Literature

Aresco, M.J.  2009. Environmental correlates of the abundances of three species of freshwater turtles in lakes of northern Florida.  Copeia 3: 545-555. 

Baldwin, E.A., Marchand, M.N., and J.A. Litvaitis. 2004. Terrestrial habitat use by nesting painted turtles in landscapes with different levels of fragmentation. Northeastern Naturalist 11(1): 41-48.

Beard. J. B.  2002.  Turf Management for Golf Courses. 2nd Edition. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, MI. 793 pages (ISBN: 1-57504-092-1).

Beaudry, F., P.G. Demaynadier, and M.L. Hunter. 2008. Identifying road mortality threat at multiple spatial scales for semi-aquatic turtles. Biological Conservation 141(10): 2550-2563.

Bennett, A.M., M. Keevil, and J.D. Litzgus. 2009. Demographic differences among populations of Northern map turtles (Graptemys geographica) in intact and fragmented sites.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 87(12): 1147-1157.

Bergeron, C.M., J.F. Husak, J.M. Unrine, C.S. Romanek and W.A. Hopkins.  2007.  Influence of feeding ecology on blood mercury concentrations in four species of turtles. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26: 1733-1741.

Bodie, J.R., and R.D. Semlitsch. 2000.  Spatial and temporal use of floodplain habitats by lentic and lotic species of aquatic turtles.  Oecologia 122: 138-146.

Bodie, J.R., R.D. Semlitsch and R.B. Renken.  2000.  Diversity and structure of turtle assemblages: associations with wetland characters across a floodplain landscape.  Ecography 23(4): 444-456. 

Bowne, D.R., M.A. Bowers, and J.E. Hines. 2006. Connectivity in an agricultural landscape as reflected by inter-pond movements of a freshwater turtle. Conservation Biology 20: 780-791.
Brim Box, J. and J. Mossa. 1999. Sediment, land use, and freshwater mussels: prospects and problems. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 18: 99–117.

Brown, C.L. and S.J. Hecnar.  2007.  Species loss and shifting population structure of freshwater turtles despite habitat protection.  Biological Conservation 138: 421-429.

Brown, M.B., I.M. Schumacher, P.A. Klein, K. Harris, T. Correll, and E.R. Jacobson. 1994.  Mycoplasma agassizii causes upper respiratory tract disease in the desert tortoise.  Infection and Immunity 62(10): 4580-4586.

Buhlmann, K. and J.W. Gibbons. 2001. Terrestrial habitat use by aquatic turtles from a seasonally fluctuating wetland: implications for wetland conservation boundaries.  Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4:115–127.

Buhlmann, K.A., T.S.B. Akre, J.B. Iverson, D. Karapatakis, R.A. Mittermeier, A. Georges, A.G.J. Rhodin, P.P. vanDijk, and J.W. Gibbons. In Press. A global analysis of tortoise and freshwater turtle distributions with identification of priority conservation areas. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 8(2).

Cagle, K.D., G.C. Packard, K. Miller, and M.J. Packard.  1993.  Effects of the microclimate in natural nests on development of embryonic painted turtles, Chrysemys picta. Functional Ecology 7(6): 653-660.

Campbell, H.A., R.G. Dwyer, M. Gordos and C.E. Franklin.  2010.  Diving through the thermal window: implications for a warming world.  Proceedings of the Royal Society 277(1701): 3837-3844. 

Carriere, M.A. and G. Blouin-Demers.  2010.  Habitat selection at multiple spatial scales in Northern Map Turtles (Graptemys geographica).  Canadian journal of Zoology 88(9): 846-854. 

Christiansen, J.L., and B.J. Gallaway.  1984.  Raccoon removal, nesting success, and hatchling emergence in Iowa turtles with special reference to Kinosternon flavescens (Kinosternidae). The Southwestern Naturalist 29(3): 343-348.

Christoffel, R., and R. Hay.  1995.  The effectiveness of placing turtle mortality barriers and crossing signs along highways to reduce turtle mortality.  Wisconsin Endangered Resources Report #107.  Bureau of Endangered Species, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Chu, J.H., S.M. Chen and C.H. Huang.  2007.  Effect of dietary iron concentrations on growth, hematological parameters, and lipid peroxidation of soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis.  Aquaculture 269: 532-537. 

Cohen, S.Z., Nickerson, S., Maxey, R., Dupuy, A., and J.A. Senita. 2007. A ground water monitoring study for pesticides and nitrates associated with golf courses on cape cod. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 10(1): 160-173.

Colding, J., Lundberg, J., Lundberg, S., and E. Andersson. 2009.  Golf courses and wetland fauna.  Ecological Applications 19(6): 1481-1491.

Congdon, J.D., A.E. Dunham, and R.C. van Loben Sels. 1993. Delayed sexual maturity and demographics of Blanding’s turtles (Emydoidea blandingii): implications for conservation and management of long-lived organisms. Conservation Biology 7:826-833.

Congdon, J.D., A.E. Dunham and R.C. van Loben Sels. 1994. Demographics of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina): implications for conservation and management of long-lived organisms. American Zoologist 34: 397-408.

Cox, W.R., W.A. Rapley, and I.K. Barker. 1980. Herpesvirus-like infection in a painted turtle (Chrysemys picta).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 15(3): 445-449.

Czech, B., P.R. Krausman, and P.K. Devers. 2000. Economic associations among causes of species endangerment in the United States. BioScience 50: 593–601.

Dessi, S., C. Sanna, and L. Paghi. 1992.  Human salmonellosis transmitted by a domestic turtle.  European Journal of Epidemiology 8(1): 120-121.

Dowling, Z., T. Hartwig, E. Kiviat, and F. Keesing. 2010. Experimental management of nesting habitat for the Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii).  Ecological Restoration 28(2): 154-159.

Eskew, E.A., S.J. Price, and M.E. Dorcas. 2010. Survival and recruitment of semi-aquatic turtles in an urbanized region.  Urban Ecosystems 13(3): 365-374.

Failey, E.L., J.C. McCoy, S.J. Price and M.E. Dorcas. 2007. Ecology of turtles inhabiting golf course and farm ponds in the western Piedmont of North Carolina. Journal of North Carolina Academy of Science 123: 221-232.

Gamble, T. and A.M. Simons.  2004.  Comparison of harvested and nonharvested painted turtle populations.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 32(4): 1269-1277. 

Garber, S.D., and J. Burger. 1995. A 20-yr study documenting the relationship between turtle decline and human recreation.  Ecological Applications 5(4): 1151-1162.

Gibbons, J.W. 1987. Why do turtles live so long? BioScience 37: 262-269.

Gibbs, J.P. and D.A. Steen. 2005. Trends in sex ratios of turtles in the United States: implications of road mortality. Conservation Biology 19: 552-556.

Gibbs, J.P. and G.D. Amato. 2000. Genetics and demography in turtle conservation. Pages 207-219 in M.W. Klemens, editor. Turtle Conservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Gillihan, S. W. 1999. Bird Conservation on Golf Courses: A Design and Management Manual. Ann Arbor Press, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI.

Grayson, K.L. and M.E. Dorcas. 2004. Seasonal temperature variation in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). Herpetologica 60:325-336.

Grosse, A.M., S.C. Sterrett and J.C. Maerz.  2010.  Effects of turbidity on the foraging success of the eastern painted turtle.  Copeia 3: 463-467. 

Harden, L.A., S.J. Price, and M.E. Dorcas. 2009. Terrestrial activity and habitat selection of eastern mud turtles (Kinosternon subrubrum) in a fragmented landscape: Implications for habitat management of golf courses and other suburban environments. Copeia 2009(1): 78-84.

Jacobson, E. R., Gardiner, C.H., Barten, S.L., D.H. Burr, and A.L. Bourgeois. 1989. Flavobacterium meningosepticum infection of a Barbour’s map turtle (Graptemys barbouri).  Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 20(4): 474-477.

King, K.W. and J. C. Balogh. 2008. Hydrology and water quality from managed turf. Golf Course Management 76(6):102-108.

King, K.W., Balogh, J.C., and R.D. Harmel.  2000.  Feeding turf with wastewater.  Golf Course Management 68(1): 59-62.

Kolbe, J.J., and F.J. Janzen. 2002. Impact of nest-site selection on nest success and nest temperature in natural and disturbed habitats. Ecology 83: 269-281.

Leighton, P.A., J.A. Horrocks, B.H. Krueger, J.A. Beggs, D.L. Kramer. 2008.  Predicting species interactions from edge responses: mongoose predation on hawksbill sea turtle nests in fragmented beach habitat.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 275(1650):2465-2472.

Lovich, J.E., S.W. Gotte, C.H. Ernst, J.C. Harshbarger, A.F. Laemmerzahl, and J.W. Gibbons. 1996.  Prevalence and histopathology of shell disease in turtles from Lake Blackshear, Georgia.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32(2): 259-265.

Marchand, M.N., and J.A. Litvaitis. 2004. Effects of habitat features and landscape composition on the population structure of a common aquatic turtle in a region undergoing rapid development. Conservation Biology 18: 758-767.

Marchand, M.N., and J.A. Litvaitis. 2004.  Effects of landscape composition, habitat features, and nest distribution on predation rates of simulated turtle nests.  Biological Conservation 117: 243-251.

Marchand, M.N., Litvaitis, J.A., Maier, T.J., and R.M. DeGraaf. 2002.  Use of artificial nests to investigate predation on freshwater turtle nests.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(4): 1092-1098.

Marsack, K., and B.J. Swanson. 2009.  A genetic analysis of the impact of generation time and road-based habitat fragmentation on eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina).  Copeia 4: 647-652.

McCoy, J. C., E. L. Failey, S. J. Price and M. E. Dorcas. 2007. An assessment of leech parasitism on semi-aquatic turtles in the western Piedmont of North Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist 6:191-202.

Meyers-Schone, L., Shugart, L.R., Walton, B.T., and J.J. Beauchamp.  1993. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of radionuclide and chemical contamination: DNA damage and residue analysis.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12(8): 1487-1496.

Mitch W.J. and J.G. Gosselink. 2000. Wetlands, 3rd Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York.

Mitchell, J.C.  1988.  Population ecology and life histories of the freshwater turtles Chrysemys picta and Sternotherus odoratus in an urban lake.  Herpetological Monographs 2: 40-61.

Mitkowski N. A., M. Browning, C. Basu, K. Jordan, and N. Jackson.  2005.  Pathogenicity of Xanthomonas translucens from annual bluegrass on golf course putting greens.  Plant Disease 89(5): 469-473.

Moore, PD.  2000.  Plant ecology: Alien invaders.  Nature 403: 492-493.

Nagelkerken, I., S.J.M. Blaber, S. Bouillon, P. Green, M. Haywood, L.G. Kirton, J.O. Meynecke, J. Pawlik, H.M. Penrose, A. Sasekumar and P.J. Somerfield.  2008.  The habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and marine fauna: A review.  Aquatic Botany 89(2): 155-185. 

Nazdrowicz, N.H., J.L. Bowman, and R.R. Roth. 2008.  Population ecology of the eastern box turtle in a fragmented landscape.  Journal of Wildlife Management 72(3): 745-753.

Nelson, D.A., Papin, M.E., and T. Baker.  2006.  Quick fixes: working together to address herptile road mortality in New York State. In Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, eds. Irwin, C.L., Garrett, P., and K.P. McDermott.  Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC: pp. 90-93.

Patrick, D.A., and J.P. Gibbs. 2010. Population structure and movements of freshwater turtles across a road-density gradient.  Landscape Ecology 25(5): 791-801.

Polo-Cavia, N., P. Lopez, J. Martin.  2008.  Interspecific differences in responses to predation risk may confer competitive advantages to invasive freshwater turtle species.  Ethology 114: 115-123. 

Ramakrishna, A., H.M.  Tam, S.P. Wani, and T.D. Long. 2006. Effect of mulch on soil temperature, moisture, weed infestation and yield of groundnut in northern Vietnam. Field Crops Research 95: 115-125.

Readel, A.M., C.A. Phillips and M.J. Wetzel.  2008.  Leech parasitism in a turtle assemblage: effects of host and environmental characteristics.  Copeia 1: 227-233. 

Rie, M.T., Lendas, K.A., Won, S.J., and I.P. Callard.  2005. Reproductive endocrine disruption in a sentinel species (Chrysemys picta) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts.  Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 48: 217-224.

Riley, S. P. D., J. Hadidian, and D. A. Manski. 1998. Population density, survival, and rabies in raccoons in an urban national area. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1153–1164.

Rizkalla, C.E. and R.K. Swihart. 2006. Community structure and differential responses of aquatic turtles to agriculturally induced habitat fragmentation. Landscape Ecology 21: 1361-1375.

Roe, J.H. and A. Georges.  2008.  Maintenance of variable responses for coping with wetland drying in freshwater turtles.  Ecology 89(2): 485-494. 

Schwanz, L.E. and F.J. Janzen.  2008.  Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination: can individual plasticity in nesting phenology prevent extreme sex ratios?  Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 81(6): 826-834. 

Scott, D.E., B.S. Metts, and J. W. Gibbons. 2008 . Enhancing amphibian biodiversity on golf courses with seasonal wetlands. In R. E. Jung and J. C. Mitchell (eds.), Urban Herpetology. Herpetological Conservation Vol. 3, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Salt Lake City, UT.

Smith, T. H., and R. M. Engeman. 2002. An extraordinary raccoon, Procyon lotor, density at an urban park. Canadian Field-Naturalist 116:636–639.

Spencer, R.J., and M.B. Thompson. 2003.  The significance of predation in nest site selection of turtles: An experimental consideration of macro- and microhabitat preferences.  Oikos 102(3): 592-600.

Sponseller, R.A., E.F. Benfield and H.M. Valett. 2001. Relationships between land use, spatial scale and stream macroinvertebrate communities. Freshwater Biology 46: 1409–1424.

Steen, D.A., and J.P. Gibbs. 2004. Effects of roads on the structure of freshwater turtle populations.  Conservation Biology 18(4): 1143-1148.

Turtle Conservation Fund. 2002.  A global action plan for conservation of tortoises and freshwater turtles.  Strategy and Funding Prospectus 2002-2007.  Conservation International and Chelonian Research Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Van Langevelde, F., C. van Dooremalen, and C.F. Jaarsma. 2009.  Traffic mortality and the role of minor roads.  Journal of Environmental Management 90(1): 660-667.

Waltz, F.C. and R. N. Carrow.  2008.  Applied turfgrass water-use efficiency/conservation: Agronomic practices and building cooperation between industry trade associations and regulatory authorities.  Acta Horticulturae 783: 239-245.

White, G.C., and K.P. Burnham.  1999.  Program MARK: survival estimation from populations of marked animals. Bird Study 46: 120-139.

Xu, X. and C.F. Mancino.  2001.  Annual bluegrass and creeping bentgrass response to varying levels of iron.  Hortscience 36(2): 371-373.  

Funding and Information

The Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Program for Golf Courses | Audubon International
Membership in the program requires education and final certification as an Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary golf course .  The golf course must comply with sustainable environmental management practices set forth by the program to improve land, water, and air quality and proper chemical management of the turf and water bodies.  The certification can attract customers and set the golf course apart as an exemplary steward of the environment, while encouraging and upholding high standards of conservation.

The Land and Water Conservation Fund | U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service
This is a State program offering grants for development of land into outdoor recreational facilities to promote protection of natural resources.  Projects in the southeast include development of state parks, forest extension, trail development, and riparian zone conservation.  This may be an option for urban areas looking to conserve any remaining habitat and protect it from further development or exploitation.

The Conservation Reserve Program | U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service
Farmers and ranchers can receive financial and technical aid concerning natural resource issues on their lands.  Funded through the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), it is administered by the Farm Service Agency.  The program assists with reducing erosion and sedimentation, establishing habitat for wildlife species, improving water quality and conserving suitable habitat.  These actions can improve the habitat for turtles living in farm areas.  Landowners go through an eligibility assessment through the NRCS prior to receiving aid.

Rails-to-Trails Conservancy
This nonprofit organization is based in Washington D.C. and offers technical resources for building greenways from unused railroad tracks.  The site provides information on getting started with converting a railroad to a trail, rehabilitating the surrounding habitat, and working to conserve the ecosystems around the new trail, as well as directions for financial assistance and fundraising.  This may be an option for urban areas with railroads that are no longer in use bisecting neighborhoods, and can create suitable corridors for turtle movement.

The Brownfields Program | United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Brownfields Program invests in cleaning up areas that have been contaminated by pollutants and other chemicals in order to reuse them for construction projects.  In urban areas this can reduce the pressure placed on turtles by offering alternatives to destroying suitable habitat areas for developments.  Grants are awarded for assessment and clean-up of brownsfield properties.

Online Resources

Considering Wildlife in Golf Course Management:

The Environmental Institute for Golf-Wildlife Habitat Management:

Golf Courses Can Be Wildlife Havens:

Wildlife Extra News – Golf Courses – Good for Wildlife?:

Scientists: Use Golf Courses as Wildlife Sanctuaries:

Golf Course: Playing Fields, Wildlife Sanctuaries or Both:



Davidson College Herpetology Lab