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Abdominal hemocoel - cavity between organs.

Antibody - a protein thaat binds specifically to a substance (the antigen). Produced by plasma cells in response to infection or immunization, bind and neutrolize for uptake and destruction by phagocytic cells.

Antigen - a molecule that can bind an antibody.

Antibody-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity (ADCC) - killing of a target that is coated with antibody by cells with Fc receptors that recognize the Fc portion of the antibody. NK cells act by this method.

B cells - upon activation, differentiate to plasma cells to produce antibodies.

Eosinophils - a subset of white blood cells that are associated with parasitic infections and they are activated by lymphocytes of adaptive immunity.

IgE - a class of immunoglobulin most notably involved in allergic reactions.

IL-4 - produced by T cells and mast cells that allows Bcell activation, class switching to IgE, and differintiation to Th2 cells.

IL-10 - a cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor produced by T cells and macrophages that is a suppressant.

IFN-gamma - a product of Th1 cells, CD8 Tcells, and NK cells that activates macrophages.

Inducible NO synthase - the major mechanism by which hosts resist intracellular infections.

Inflammation - characterized by the accumulation of fluid, plasma proteins, and lymphocytes at the site of infection.

Macrophage - phagocytic cells that are important to innate immunity. They act as antigen-presenting cells and as effector cells in humoral/cell-mediate immune responses. They migrate throughout the body.

Malpighian tubules - excretory organs of the abdominal cavity in insects.

Neutrophil - white blood cell of the periphery. They engulf extracellular pathogens.

NK cells - important to innate immunity and kill viruses and other intracellular pathogens.

Th1 - a type of CD4 Tcell that produce specific cytokines to activate macrophages.

Th2 - a type of CD4 Tcell that produces specific cytokines to activate B cells.

TNF-alpha - a cytokine produced by macrophages and Tcells.

Treg - inhibit T cell responses.

(Janeway, 2005)

Janeway et al. 2005. Immunobiology: the immune system in health and disease. 6th ed. New York: Garland Science.

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