This site was created as an undergraduate course requirement at Davidson College





Apodaca G., and J. McKerrow. (1989) Regulation of Trichophyton rubrum  proteolytic activity. Infection and Immunity, 57(10), 3081-3090.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005) "Tinea Pedis." <>. Accessed 3 May 2007.

Campos, M., M. Russo, E. Gomes, and S. Almeida. (2005) Stimulation, inhibition and death of macrophages infected with Trichophyton rubrum. Microbes and Infection. 8(2), 372-379.

Dahl, M. (1994) Dermatophytosis and the immune response. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.  31(3), S34-S41.

Dahl, M., R. Carpenter. (1986) Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, complement, and Trichophton rubrum. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 86(2), 138-141.

Dahl, M., and S. Grando. (1994) Chronic Dermatophytosis: What is Special About Trichophyton rubrum? Advances in Dermatology, 9, 97-109.

DoctorFungus Corporation. (2007) “Trichophyton Species.” Acessed 3 May 2007. <>.

Ellis, D., R. Hernandez, and DoctorFungus Corporation. (2003)The Geraldine Kaminisk Medical Mycology Library: “Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes”. Acessed 3 May 2007. <>.

Grando, S., M. Herron, M. Dahl, and R. Nelson. (1992) Binding and uptake of Trichophyton rubrum mannan by human epidermal keratinocytes: a time course study. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. 72(4), 273-276.

Janeway, C., P. Travers, M. Walport, and M. Shlomchik. (2005) Immunobiology. New York: Garlland Sciences Publishing, 340-348.

Kaufman, G., B. Horwitz, L. Duek, Y. Ullman, and I. Berdicevsky. (2006) Infection stages of dermatophyte pathogen Trichophyton: microscopic characterization and proteolytic enzymes.  Medical Mycology. 45, 149-155.

Makimura, K. (1999) "Pathogenic Fungi Database." <>. Accessed 1 May 2007.

Oyeka, C. (2000) Trichophton mentagrophtes a keratinophilic fungus. Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia. 699, 60-65.

Stevenson, J. (2007) “Fungal Diversity: General Characteristics of Fungi.” General Microbiology II. Department of Microbiology: Miami University of Ohio. Accessed 14 Feb 2007. <>.

Svejgaard, E. (1986) Humoral antibody responses in the immunopathogenesis of dermatophytosis. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. 121, 85-91.

Wang, L. et al. (2006) Analysis of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum expressed sequence tags. BMC Genomics. 7:255, Accessed 22 March 2007. <>.

Weitzman, I., and R. Summberbell. (1995) The Dermatophytes. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 8(2), 240-259.

Woodfolk, J. (2005) Allergy and Dermatophytes. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 18(1), 30-43.

Woodfolk, J., S. Sung, D. Benjamin, J. Lee, and T. Platts-Mills. (2000) Distinct human T cell repertoires mediate immediate and delayed-type hypersensitivity to the Trichophyton antigen Tri r 2. The Journal of Immunology. 165(8):4379-87.

Woodfolk, J., J. Slunt, B. Deuell, M. Hayden, and T. Platts-Mills. (1996) Definition of a Trichophyton protein associated with delayed hypersensitivity in humans: Evidence for immediate (IgE and IgG4) and delayed hypersensitivity to a single protein. The Journal of Immunology. 156(4), 1695-1701.

Zamora, Antonio. (2005) “Scientific Psychic: Hygiene- Viruses, Bacteria, and Parasites [Foot sores image].” Acessed 2 May 2007. <>.




Life cycle

Innate Response

IH vs. DTH

Evasion of Immune System Detection

Prevention & Treatment and Future Research






For more information, please refer to the

Davidson College Biology Home Page

Davidson College Home Page

E-mail me any comments or concerns

© Copyright 2007 Department of Biology, Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035