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life cycle

innate immune response

cellular immune response

humoral immune response

evasion of immune system


future directions

Ausiello, C. M., R. Lande, F. Urbani, A. la Sala, P. Stefanelli, S. Salmaso, P. Mastrantonion, A. Cassone, 1999.  Cell-Mediated Immune Response in Four-Year-Old Children after Primary Immunization with Acellular Pertussis Vaccines.  Infection and Immunity 67: 4064-4071.

Babu, M. M., J. Bhargavi, R. S. Saund, S. K. Singh, 2001.  Virulence Factors of Bordetella pertussisCurrent Sciency 80: 1512-1522.

Bjornstad, O.N. and E. T. Harvill, 2006.  Evolution and Emergence of Bordetella in humans.  Trends in Microbiology 13: 355-359.

Boyd, A. P.,  P. J. Ross, H. Conroy, N. Mahon, E. D. Lavelle, K. H. G. Mills, 2005.  Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Modulates Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses: Distinct Role for Acylation and Enzymatic Activity in Immunomodulation and Cell Death.  Journal of Immunology 175: 730-738.

de Carvalho, A. P. and E. M. C. Pereira, 2006.  Acellular Pertussis Vaccine for Adolescents.  Journal de Pediatria 82: S15-24.

Elahi, S., R. Bownlie, J. Korzeniowski, R. Buchanan, B. O’Connor, M. S. Peppler, S. A. Halperin, S. F. Lee, L. A. Babiuk, V. Gerdts, 2005.  Infection of Newborn Piglets with Bordetella pertussis: a New Model for Pertussis.  Infection and Immunity 73: 3636-3645.

Fedele, G. P. Stefanelli, F. Spensieri, C. Fazio, P. Mastrantonio, C. M. Ausiello, 2005.  Bordetella pertussis-Infected Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Undergo Maturation and Induce Th1 Polarization and Interleukin-23 Expression.  Infection and Immunity 73: 1590-1597,

Fernandez, R. C. and A. A. Weiss, 1994.  Cloning and Sequencing of a Bordetella pertussis Serum Resistance Locus.  Infection and Immunity 62: 4727-4738.

Guermonprez, P., N. Khelof, E. Blouin, P. Rieu, P. Ricciardi-Castagnoli, N. Guiso, D. Ladant, C. Leclerc, 2001.  The Adenylate Cyclase Toxin of Bordetella pertussis Binds to Target Cells via the αMβ2 Integrin (CD11b/CD18).  Journal of Experimental Medicine 193: 1035-1044.

Higgins, S.C., E.C. Lavelle, C. McCann, B. Keogh, E. McNeela, P. Byrne, B. O’Gorman, A. Jarnicki, P. McGuirk, K.H.G. Mills, 2003.  Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Innate IL-10 Activates Antigen-Specific Regulatory T Cells and Confers Resistance to Bordetella pertussis by Inhibiting Inflammatory Pathology.  Journal of Immunology 171: 3119-3127.

Hijnen, M., F. R. Mooi, P. G. M. van Gageldonk, P. Hoogerhout, A. J. King, G. A. M. Berbers, 2004.  Epitope Structure of the Bordetella pertussis Protein P.69 Pertactin, a Major Vaccine Component and Protective Antigen.  Infection and Immunity 72: 3716-3723.
Hoppe, J. E, 1999.  Bordetella.  In: Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th Edition.  Eds. Murray, Palrick et al.  American Society for Microbiology Press, Washington DC.  614-616.

Hou, W., Y. Wu, S. Sun, M. Shi, Y. Sun, C. Yang, G. Pei, Y. Gu, C. Zhong, B. Sun, 2003.  Pertussis Toxin Enhances Th1 Responses by Stimulation of Dendritic Cells.  Jounral of Immunology 170: 1728-1736.

Janeway, C. A., P. Travers, M. Walport, M. J. Schlomchik, 2005.  Immunobiology: the Immune System in Health and Disease, 6th Edition.Garland Science Publishing, New York and London. 
Kirimanjeswara, G. S., P. B. Mann, E. T. Harvill, 2003.  Role of Antibodies in Immunity to Bordetella Infections.  Infection and Immunity 71: 1719-1724.

Leef, M., K. L. Elkins, J. Barbic, R. D. Shahin, 2000.  Protective Immunity to Bordetella pertussis Requires Both B Cells and CD4+ T cells for Key Functions Other than Specific Antibody Production.  Journal of Experimental Medicine 191: 1841-1852.

Loscher, C. E., S. Donnelly, S. McBennett, M. A. Lynch, K. H. G. Mills, 1998.  Proinflammatory Cytokines in the Adverse Systemic and Neurologic Effects Assocated with Parenteral Injection of a Whole Cell Pertussis Vaccine.  In: Molecular Mechanisms of Fever.  Annals of the N. Y. Academy of Sciences.  Eds. M. T. Kluger, T. B. Fai, C. A. Dinarello. 856: 274-276.

Loucka, J., G. Schlecht, J. Vodolanova, C. Leclerc, P. Sebo, 2002.  Delivery of a Ma1E CD4+-T-Cell Epitope into the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Antigen Presentation Pathway by Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase.  Infection and Immunity 70: 1002-1005.

Mann, P. B., D. Wolfe, E. Latz, D. Golenbock, A. Preston, E. T. Harvill, 2005.  Comparative Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Innate Host Defense to Bordetella Infection.  Infection and Immunity 73.

Martino, A., E. Volpe, G. Auricchio, V. Colizzi, P. M. Baldini, 2006.  Influence of Pertussis toxin on CD1a Isoform Expression in Human Dendritic Cells.  Journal of Clinical Immunology 26: 153-159.

Mascart, F., V. Verscheure, A. Malfroot, M. Hainaut, D. Pierard, S. Temerman, A. Peltier, A. S. Debrie, J. Levy, G. del Giudice, C. Locht, 2003.  Bordetella pertussis Infection in 2-Month-Old Infants Promotes Type 1 T Cell Responses.  Journal of Immunology 170: 1504-1509.

McGuirk, P., B. P. Mahon, F. Griffin, K. H. G. Mills, 1998.  Compartmentalization of T Cell Responses Following Respiratory Infection with Bordetella pertussis: Hyporesponsiveness of Lung T Cells is Associated with Modulated Expression of the Co-Stimulatory Molecule CD28.  European Journal of Immunology 28: 153-163.

McGuirk, P. and K. H. G. Mills, 2000.  Direct Anti-Inflammatory Effect of a Bacterial Virulence Factor: Il-10 Dependent Suppression of IL-12 Production by Filamentous Hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussisEuropean Journal of Immunology 30: 415-422.

Mills, K. H. G., A. Barnard, J. Watkins, K. Redhead, 1993.  Cell-Mediated Immunity to Bordetella pertussis: Role of Th1 Cells in Bacterial Clearance in a Murine Respiratory Infection Model.  Infection and Immunity 61: 399-410.

Mills, K. H. G., M. Ryan, E. Ryan, B. P. Mahon, 1998.  A Murine Model in Which Protection Correlates with Pertussis Vaccine Efficacy in Children Reveals Complementary Roles for Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity in Protection agaisnt Bordetella pertussisInfection and Immunity 66: 594-602.

Mills, K. H. G., 2001.  Immunity to Bordetella pertussisMicrobes and Infection 655-677.

Mooi, F. R., H. van Oirschot, K. Heuvelman, H. G. van der Heide, W. Gaastra, R. J. Willems, 1998.  Polymorphism in the Bordetella pertussis Virulence Factors P.69/Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin in The Netherlands: Temporal Trends and Evidence for Vaccine-Driven Evolution.  Infection and Immunity 66: 670-675.

Mouallem, M., Z. Farfel, E. Hanski, 1990.  Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: Intoxication of Host Cells by Bacterial Invasion.  Infection and Immunity 58: 3759-3764.

Ohman, L., R. Willen, O. H. Hultgren, E. H. Hornquist, 2005.  Acellular Bordetella pertussis Vaccine Enhances Mucosal Interleukin-10 Production, Induces Apoptosis of Activated Th1 Cells and Attenuates Colitis in Gαi2-Deficient Mice.  Clinical and Experimental Immunology 141: 37-46.

Poolman, J. T. and H.O. Hallander, 2007.  Acellular pertussis vaccine and the role of pertactin and fimbriae.  Expert Review of Vaccines 6: 47-56.

Rodriguez, M. E. and W. L. van der Pol, 2003.  Letter to the Editor: Humoral Immunity agaisnt Bordetella pertussis: Antibodies of B Cells?  Infection and Immunity 71: 6686.

Ross, P. J., E. C. Lavelle, K. H. G. Mills, A. P. Boyd, 2004.  Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis Synergizes with Lipopolysaccharide To Promote Innate Interleukin-10 Production and Enhances the Induction of Th2 and Regulatory T Cells.  Infection and Immunity 72: 1568-1579.

Ryan, M., L. McCarthy, R. Rappuoli, B. P. Mahon, K. H. G. Mills, 1998.  Pertussis Toxin Potentiates Th1 and Th2 Response to Co-Injected Antigen: Adjuvant Action Is Associated with Enhanced Regulatory Cytokine Production and Expression of the Co-Stimulatory Molecules B7-1, B7-2, and CD28.  International Immunology 10: 651-662.

Saukkonen E., C. Cabellos, M. Burroughs, S. Parsad, E. Tuomanen, 1991.  Integrin Mediated Localization of Bordetella pertussis Within Human Macrophages: Role in Pulmonary Colonization.  Journal of Experimental Medicine 173: 1143-1149.

Schaeffer, L. M., F. X. McCormack, H. Wu, A. A. Weiss, 2004.  Bordetella pertussis Lipopolysaccharide Resists the Bactericidal Effects of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein A.  Journal of Immunology 173: 1959-1965.

Schaeffer, L. M., F. X. McCormack, W. Huixing, A. A. Weiss, 2004.  Interactions of Pulmonary Collectins with Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis Lipopolysaccharide Elucidate the Structural Basis of their Antimicrobial Activities.  Infection and Immunity 72: 7124-7130.

Shumilla, J. A., V. Lacaille, T. M. C. Hornell, J. Huang, S. Narasimhan, D. A. Relman, E. D. Mellins, 2004.  Bordetella pertussis Infection of  Primary Human Monocytes Alters HLA-DR Expression.  Infection and Immunity 72: 1450-1462.

Spensieri, F., G. Fedele, C. Fazio, M. Nasso, P. Stefanelli, P. Mastrantonio, C. M. Ausiello, 2006.  Bordetella pertussis Inhibition of Interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70 in Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Blocks IL-12 p35 through Adenylate Cyclase Toxin-Dependent Cyclic AMP Induction.  Infection and Immunity 74: 2831-2838.
Thomazzi, S. M., M. H. Souza, A. A. Melo-Filho, E. L. Hewlett, A. A. Lima, R. A. Ribeiro, 1995.  Pertussis toxin from Bordetella pertussis Blocks Neutrophil Migration and Neutrophil-Dependent Edema in Response to Inflammation.  Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Biological Research 28: 120-124.

Weiss, A. A., P. S. Mobberley, R. C. Fernandez, C. M. Mink, 1999.  Characterization of Human Bactericidal Antibodies to Bordetella pertussisInfection and Immunnity 67: 1424-1431.  

Steed L. L., E. T. Akporiaye, R. L. Friedman, 1992.  Bordetella pertussis Induces Respiratory Burst Activity in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.  Infection and Immunity 60: 2101-2105.

Todar, K, 2004.  Bordetella pertussis and Whooping Cough.  Todar’s Online Textbook of Bacteriology.  Accessed: 7 February 2007.  < html>.

Tozzi A. E., L. P. Celentano, M. L. C. degli Atti, S. Salmaso, 2005.  Diagnosis and Management of Pertussis.  Canadian Medical Association Journal 172: 509-515.

Wolfe, D. N., G. S. Kirimanjeswara, E. T. Harvill.  Clearance of Bordetella parapertussis from the Lower Respiratory Tract Requires Humoral and Cellular Immunity.  Infection and Immunity 73: 6508-6513.

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