Gene Networks Database

Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Genes in Development: Cell-type specific genes



Endo16 is the early vegetal plate marker.
Endo16 protein may be an adhesion molecule, involved in the gastrulation of the embryo (Nocente-McGrath et al., 1989).
Endo16 is a single copy gene (Godin et al., 1996).


Endo16 gene codes for a cell surface glycoprotein that is secreted by the cells of midgut with a high molecular weight of about 180 to >300 kDa.
This protein has no significant similarities with any other known sequences (Nocente-McGrath C et al., 1989).
It is a large multidomain protein containing a putative signal sequence at its amino terminus which is followed by a cysteine-rich region, two potential heparin-binding regions, an acidic domain of 5 clustered repeats, an RGD cell binding motif and a group of 12 additional acidic repeats (Soltysik-Espanola et al., 1994).

Subcellular location

In 18h embryos the staining of Endo16 mRNA is clearly restricted to the cytoplasm of the vegetal plate cells.
At midgastrula stage Endo16 protein is localized to the surface of endodermal cells of the archenteron and secondary mesenchyme cells (Nocente-McGrath et al., 1989).

Expression Pattern

mRNA level

Temporal accumulation

Method: Nothern blot hybridization
Reference: Nocente-McGrath et al., 1989, Ransick et al., 1993

StageEgg MorulaHatched blastula Mesenchyme blastula GastrulaLate pluteus
The transcript increases in abundance by the mesenchyme blastula stage, continues to increase during gastrulation and declines in abundance by the time the formation of the pluteus larva is complete.

Spatial localization

Method: in situ hybridization
Reference: Nocente-McGrath et al., 1989, Ransick et al., 1993

18-20 hr hatched blastula
28-30 hr mesenchyme blastula
36-48 hr gastrula
60 hr
72-90 hr
TissueVegetal plateVegetal plate All cells of archenteron Mid- and hindgutStomach
Endo16 is expressed by all veg2 tier derivatives while they are a part of the vegetal plate.



Regulatory Regions

Regulatory Connections

Upstream Genes

SpGCF1 SpOtx


Downstream Genes

Evolutionary homologues



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