Borrelia burgdorferi

Works Cited

This page was produced as an assingment for an undergraduate course at Davidson College.


Structural Features

Pathogen Life Cycle

Innate Immune Response

Humoral Immune Response

Cellular Immune Response

Evasion of the Immune System

Lyme Disease


Works Cited

  1. Akin, Evren, Gail L. McHugh, Richard A. Flavell, Erol Fikrig, and Allen C. Steere.  “The Immunoglobulin (IgG) Antibody Response to OspA and OspB Correlates with Severe and Prolonged Lyme Arthritis and the IgG Response to P35 Correlates with Mild and Brief Arthritis.”  Infection and Immunity 67 (January 1999): 173-181.

  2. Anguita, Juan, David H. Persing, Mercedes Rincón, Stephen W. Barthold, and Erol Fikrig.  “Effect of Anti-Interleukin 12 Treatment on Murine Lyme Borreliosis.”  Journal of Clinical Investigation 97 (February 1996): 1028-1034.  

  3. Benach, Jorge L., James L. Coleman, Juan Carlos Garcia-Monco, and Paul C. Deponte.  “Biological Activity of Borrelia burgdorferi Antigens.”  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 539 (26 August 1988):  115-125.

  4. Burgdorfer, Willy, Stanley F. Hayes, and Dan Corwin. “Pathophysiology of the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia Burgdorferi, in Ixodid Ticks.”  Reviews of Infectious Diseases 11 – Supplement 6 (September-Octover 1989):  S1442-S1450.

  5. Burgdorfer, Willy and James J. Kasmierczak.  “Lyme Disease.”  In AccessScience@McGraw-Hill., DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.393050.  4 May 2001. Accessed on 28 January 2007.

  6. De Silva, Aravinda M. and Erol Fikrig.  “Perspectives Series:  Host/Pathogen Interactions – Arthropod- and Host-specific Gene Expression by Borrelia burgdorferi.”  Journal of Clinical Investigation 99 (February 1997):  377-379.

  7. Diterihc, Isabel and Thomas Hartung.  “Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., the Infectious Agent of Lyme Disease.”  Emerging Bacterial Pathogens 8 (2001):  72-89. 

  8. Filgueira, Luis, Frank O. Nestlé, Michael Rittig, Helen I. Joller, and Peter Groscurth.  “Human Dendritic Cells Phagocytose and Process Borrelia burgdorferi.”  Journal of Immunology 157 (1996): 2998-3005.

  9. Fung, Brenda P., Gail L. McHugh, John M. Leong, and Allen C. Steere.  “Humoral Immune Response to Outer Surface Protein C of Borrelia burgdorferi in Lyme Disease:  Role of the Immunoglobulin M Response in the Serodiagnosis of Early Infection.”  Infection and Immunity 62 (August 1994):  3213-3221.

  10. Grossk, Dawn M., Thomas Forsthuber, Magdalena Tary-Lehman, Carey Etling, Kouichi Ito, Zoltan A. Nagy, Jodie A. Field, Allen C. Steere, Brigitte T. Huber.  “Identification of LFA-1 as a Candidate Autoantigen in Treatment-resistant Lyme Arthritis.” Science 281 (31 July 1998):  703-706.

  11. Hechemy, Karim E., Hervie L. Harris, Michael J. Duerr, Jorge L. Benach, and Charles B. Reimer.  “Immunoglobulin G Subclasses Specific to Borrelia burgdorferi in Patients with Lyme Disease.”  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 539 (26 August 1988):  162-169.

  12. Keane-Meyers, Andrea, and Steven P. Nickell.  “Role of IL-4 and IFN-γ in Modulation of Immunity to Borrelia burgdorferi in Mice.”  Journal of Immunology 155 (1995):  2020-2028.

  13. Keane-Meyers, Andrea, and Steven P. Nickell.  “T Cell Subset-Dependent Modulation of Immunity to Borrelia burgdorferi in Mice.”  The Journal of Immunology 154 (1995): 1770-1776.

  14. Kraus, Andreas, Volker Brade, Christoph Schoerner, Werner Solbach, Joachim R. Kalden, and Gerd R. Burmester.  “T Cell Proliferation Induced by Borrelia burgdorferi in Patiends with Lyme Borreliosis.”  Arthritis and Rheumatism 34 (April 1991): 393-402.

  15. Liang, Fang Ting, Mary B. Jacobs, Lisa C. Bowers, and Mario T. Philipp. “An Immune Evasion Mechanism for Spirochetal Persistence in Lyme Borreliosis.”  Journal of Experimental Medicine 195 (18 February 2002): 415-422)

  16. McKisic, Maureen D., William L. Redmond, and Stephen W. Barthold. “Cutting Edge:  T Cell-Mediated Pathology in Murine Lyme Borreliosis.” Journal of Immunology 165 (2000): 6096-6099.

  17. Pachner, Andrew R., Elizabeth Delaney, and Nancy S. Ricalton.  “Murine Lymph Borreliosis:  Route of Inoculation Determines Immune Response and Infectivity.”  Regional Immunology 4 (1992):  345-51.

  18. Pohl-Koppe, Annette, Konstantin E. Balashov, Allen C. Steere, Eric L. Logigian, and David A. Hafler.  “Identification of a T Cell Subset Capable of Both IFN-γ and IL-10 Secretion in Patients with Chronic Borrelia burgdorferi.” Journal of Immunology 160 (1998): 1804-1810.

  19. Philipp, Mario T. and Barbara J.B. Johnson.  “Animal models of Lyme disease:  pathogenesis and immunoprophylaxis.”  Trends in Microbiology 2 (November 1994). 

  20. Re, Vincent Lo, James L. Occi, and Rob Roy MacGregor.  “Identifying the Vector of Lyme Disease.”  American Family Physician 69 (15 April 2004):  1935-37.  <>.

  21. Sjöwall, J., A Carlsson, O. Vaarala, S. Bergström, J. Ernerudh, P. Forsberg, and C. Ekerfelt.  “Innate Immune Responses in Lyme borreliosis:  enhanced tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12 in asymptomatic individuals in response to live spirochetes.” Clinical and Experimental Immunology 141 (2005): 89-98.

  22. Steere, Allen C.  “Lyme Disease.”  New England Journal of Medicine 321 (31 August 1989): 586-595.

  23. Steere, Allen C.  “Lyme Disease.”  New England Journal of Medicine 345 (12 July 2001):  115-124.

  24. Steere, Allen C., Jenifer Coburn, and Lisa Glickstein.  “The emergence of Lyme disease.”  The Journal of Clinical Investigation 8 (April 2004): 1093-1101.

  25. Steere, Allen C., John A Hardin, Shaun Ruddy, Jon G. Mummaw, and Stephen E. Malawista. “Lyme Arthritis:  Correlation of Serum and Cyroglobulin IgM with Activity, and Serum IgG with Remission.”  Arthritis and Rheumatism 22 (May 1979): 471-483.

  26. Szczepanski, Andrew and Jorge L. Benach.  “Lyme Borreliosis:  Host Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi.”  Microbiological Reviews 55 (March 1991):  21-34.

  27. Yssel, Hans, Marie-Claue Shanafelt, Carol Soderberg, Patricia V. Schneider, John Anzola, and Gary Peltz.  “Borrelia Burgdorferi Activates a T Helper Type 1-like T Cell Subset in Lyme Arthritis.” Journal of Experimental Medicine 174 (September 1991): 593-601.  

  28. “Lyme Disease.”  Todar’s Online Textbook of Bacteriology.  Kenneth Todar University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Bacteriology. 2005.  Accessed on 23 January 2007.  <>. 

  29. “Lyme Disease Transmission.”  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases. 7 December 2005. Accessed on 23 January 2007.  <>



This page was created for an undergraduate Immunology course, Biology 307, at Davidson College in the Spring semester of 2007 under Dr. Sophia Sarafova (

Please direct all comments and questions to Meredith Prasse (


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